Industrialization and Infant Mortality
On average, infant mortality rates are lower in more industrialized nations, yet health and mortality worsened during early industrialization in some nations. This study examines the effects of growing manufacturing employment on infant mortality across 274 Indonesian districts from 1985 to 1995, a time of rapid industrialization. Compared with cross-national studies we have a larger sample size of regions, more consistent data definitions, and better checks for causality and specification. We can also explore the causal mechanisms underlying our correlations. Overall the results suggest manufacturing employment raised living standards, housing quality, and reduced cooking with wood and coal, which helped reduce infant mortality. At the same time, pollution from factories appears quite harmful to infants. The overall effect was slightly higher infant mortality in regions that experienced greater industrialization.
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- Edward Miguel & Paul Gertler & David Levine, 2004.
"Did Industrialization Destroy Social Capital in Indonesia?,"
Development and Comp Systems
- Miguel, Edward A. & Gertler, Paul & Levine, David I., 2003. "Did Industrialization Destroy Social Capital in Indonesia?," Center for International and Development Economics Research, Working Paper Series qt9kt2m860, Center for International and Development Economics Research, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
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- Robert E. Lipsey & Fredrik Sjoholm, 2001. "Foreign Direct Investment and Wages in Indonesian Manufacturing," NBER Working Papers 8299, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Joseph Potter & Carl Schmertmann & Suzana Cavenaghi, 2002. "Fertility and development: evidence from Brazil," Demography, Springer, vol. 39(4), pages 739-761, November.
- Eskeland, Gunnar S. & Harrison, Ann E., 1997.
"Moving to greener pastures : multinationals and the pollution-haven hypothesis,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1744, The World Bank.
- Eskeland, Gunnar S. & Harrison, Ann E., 2003. "Moving to greener pastures? Multinationals and the pollution haven hypothesis," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 1-23, February.
- Gunnar A. Eskeland & Ann E. Harrison, 2002. "Moving to Greener Pastures? Multinationals and the Pollution Haven Hypothesis," NBER Working Papers 8888, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Arik Levinson, 2000. "The Missing Pollution Haven Effect," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 15(4), pages 343-364, April.
- Tubagus Feridhanusetyawan & Haryo Aswicahyono & Ari A. Perdana, 2001. "The Male-Female Wage Differentials in Indonesia," CSIS Economics Working Paper Series WPE059, Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Jakarta, Indonesia.
- Easterly, William, 1999. "Life during growth : international evidence on quality of life and per capita income," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2110, The World Bank.
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