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Credit Risk and Risk Neutral Default Probabilities: Information About Migrations and Defaults

  • Delianedis, Gordon
  • Geske, Robert

Default probabilities are important to the credit markets. Changes in default probabilities may forecast credit rating migrations to other rating levels or to default. Such rating changes can affect the firm’s cost of capital, credit spreads, bond returns, and the prices and hedge ratios of credit derivatives. While rating agencies such as Moodys and Standard & Poors compute historical default frequencies, option models can also be used to calculate forward looking or expected default frequencies. In this paper, we compute risk neutral probabilities or default (RNPD) using the diffusion models of Merton (1974) and Geske (1977). It is shown that the Geske model produces a term structure of RNPD’s, and the shape of this term structure may forecast impending credit events. Next, it is shown that these RNPD’s serve as bounds to estimates of actual default probabilities. Furthermore, the RNPD’s exhibit the same comparative statics as the estimates of actual default probabilities. Also, the risk neutral default probabilities may be more accurately estimated than actual default probabilities because they do not require an estimate of the firm’s drift. Given these similarities and advantages of RNPD’s, their estimates may possess significant information about credit events. To confirm this an event study of the relation between RNPD and rating migrations is conducted. We first show that these RNPD’s from both the Merton and Geske models do possess significant and very early information about credit rating migrations.While the sample of firms that actually default during this time period is small, changes in the shape of the term structure of default probabilities appears to detect impending migrations to default. This is shown to be consistent with an inverted term structure of default probabilities, where prior to an impending default, the short term default probability is higher than the forward default probability. Finally, since rating migrations to either lower ratings or to default can be detected months in advance these credit events may not be a surprise.

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Paper provided by Anderson Graduate School of Management, UCLA in its series University of California at Los Angeles, Anderson Graduate School of Management with number qt7dm2d31p.

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Date of creation: 01 May 1998
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Handle: RePEc:cdl:anderf:qt7dm2d31p
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  1. Duffie, Darrell & Singleton, Kenneth J, 1997. " An Econometric Model of the Term Structure of Interest-Rate Swap Yields," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(4), pages 1287-1321, September.
  2. Geske, Robert, 1977. "The Valuation of Corporate Liabilities as Compound Options," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(04), pages 541-552, November.
  3. Geske, Robert & Johnson, Herb E, 1984. " The American Put Option Valued Analytically," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(5), pages 1511-24, December.
  4. Altman, Edward I. & Haldeman, Robert G. & Narayanan, P., 1977. "ZETATM analysis A new model to identify bankruptcy risk of corporations," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 29-54, June.
  5. Geske, Robert, 1978. "The Pricing of Options with Stochastic Dividend Yield," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 33(2), pages 617-25, May.
  6. Jarrow, Robert A & Turnbull, Stuart M, 1995. " Pricing Derivatives on Financial Securities Subject to Credit Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(1), pages 53-85, March.
  7. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-54, May-June.
  8. Longstaff, Francis A & Schwartz, Eduardo S, 1995. " A Simple Approach to Valuing Risky Fixed and Floating Rate Debt," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(3), pages 789-819, July.
  9. Black, Fischer & Cox, John C, 1976. "Valuing Corporate Securities: Some Effects of Bond Indenture Provisions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 31(2), pages 351-67, May.
  10. Geske, Robert, 1979. "The valuation of compound options," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 63-81, March.
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