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Some New Asymptotic Theory for Least Squares Series: Pointwise and Uniform Results

Author

Listed:
  • Alexandre Belloni
  • Victor Chernozhukov
  • Denis Chetverikov
  • Kengo Kato

Abstract

In applications it is common that the exact form of a conditional expectation is unknown and having flexible functional forms can lead to improvements. Series method offers that by approximating the unknown function based on $k$ basis functions, where $k$ is allowed to grow with the sample size $n$. We consider series estimators for the conditional mean in light of: (i) sharp LLNs for matrices derived from the noncommutative Khinchin inequalities, (ii) bounds on the Lebesgue factor that controls the ratio between the $L^\infty$ and $L_2$-norms of approximation errors, (iii) maximal inequalities for processes whose entropy integrals diverge, and (iv) strong approximations to series-type processes. These technical tools allow us to contribute to the series literature, specifically the seminal work of Newey (1997), as follows. First, we weaken the condition on the number $k$ of approximating functions used in series estimation from the typical $k^2/n \to 0$ to $k/n \to 0$, up to log factors, which was available only for spline series before. Second, we derive $L_2$ rates and pointwise central limit theorems results when the approximation error vanishes. Under an incorrectly specified model, i.e. when the approximation error does not vanish, analogous results are also shown. Third, under stronger conditions we derive uniform rates and functional central limit theorems that hold if the approximation error vanishes or not. That is, we derive the strong approximation for the entire estimate of the nonparametric function. We derive uniform rates, Gaussian approximations, and uniform confidence bands for a wide collection of linear functionals of the conditional expectation function.

Suggested Citation

  • Alexandre Belloni & Victor Chernozhukov & Denis Chetverikov & Kengo Kato, 2012. "Some New Asymptotic Theory for Least Squares Series: Pointwise and Uniform Results," Papers 1212.0442, arXiv.org, revised Jun 2015.
  • Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1212.0442
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Cattaneo, Matias D. & Farrell, Max H., 2013. "Optimal convergence rates, Bahadur representation, and asymptotic normality of partitioning estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 174(2), pages 127-143.
    2. Xiaohong Chen & Timothy M. Christensen, 2013. "Optimal uniform convergence rates for sieve nonparametric instrumental variables regression," CeMMAP working papers CWP56/13, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    3. Victor Chernozhukov & Sokbae Lee & Adam M. Rosen, 2013. "Intersection Bounds: Estimation and Inference," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 81(2), pages 667-737, March.
    4. Joshua Angrist & Victor Chernozhukov & Iván Fernández-Val, 2006. "Quantile Regression under Misspecification, with an Application to the U.S. Wage Structure," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 74(2), pages 539-563, March.
    5. Andrews, Donald W K, 1991. "Asymptotic Normality of Series Estimators for Nonparametric and Semiparametric Regression Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(2), pages 307-345, March.
    6. Alexandre Belloni & Victor Chernozhukov & Ivan Fernandez-Val, 2011. "Conditional quantile processes based on series or many regressors," CeMMAP working papers CWP19/11, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    7. Whitney K. Newey & James L. Powell & Francis Vella, 1999. "Nonparametric Estimation of Triangular Simultaneous Equations Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(3), pages 565-604, May.
    8. Eastwood, Brian J. & Gallant, A. Ronald, 1991. "Adaptive Rules for Seminonparametric Estimators That Achieve Asymptotic Normality," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(03), pages 307-340, September.
    9. Huang, Jianhua Z., 2003. "Asymptotics for polynomial spline regression under weak conditions," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 207-216, November.
    10. Chen, Xiaohong, 2007. "Large Sample Sieve Estimation of Semi-Nonparametric Models," Handbook of Econometrics,in: J.J. Heckman & E.E. Leamer (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 6, chapter 76 Elsevier.
    11. Victor Chernozhukov & Denis Chetverikov & Kengo Kato, 2012. "Gaussian approximation of suprema of empirical processes," CeMMAP working papers CWP44/12, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    12. Newey, Whitney K., 1997. "Convergence rates and asymptotic normality for series estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 147-168, July.
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    JEL classification:

    • C01 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - General - - - Econometrics
    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General

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