IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Optimum Level and Welfare Effects of Export Taxes for Cocoa Beans in Indonesia: A Partial Equilibrium Approach

  • Permani, Risti
  • Vanzetti, David
  • Setyoko, Nur Rakhman

Aiming to support downstream processing, the Indonesian government announced an export tax in May 2010. Using a partial equilibrium approach, this paper therefore attempts to analyse: (i) whether the Indonesian government has imposed optimal taxes on cocoa beans; (ii) the impacts of cocoa export taxes on domestic welfare. In particular, it attempts to develop a two-stage partial equilibrium welfare analysis in which effects of policy for upstream sectors may affect downstream sectors. The study also presents thorough econometric estimates of import demand, export supply, Armington and cross elasticities using the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) to deal with cointegration and simultaneity issues. A literature search suggests that existing studies not only report mixed results but also use methods, mostly the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) model, which could not deal with cointegration and simultaneity issues. Three key lessons can be drawn for this study. First, an export tax on Indonesian exports of cocoa beans would indeed divert some of the crop to domestic use. However, this leads to significant losses to cocoa bean producers and does little to develop a processing sector. Second, interdependence between major cocoa exporting countries’ policy is evident. Third, due to limited readily available data, better econometric techniques do not necessarily lead to improved robustness of estimates of elasticities. This could significantly affect estimates of optimal export taxes and, therefore, analysis of welfare effects.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society in its series 2011 Conference (55th), February 8-11, 2011, Melbourne, Australia with number 100695.

in new window

Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ags:aare11:100695
Contact details of provider: Postal: AARES Central Office Manager, Crawford School of Public Policy, ANU, Canberra ACT 0200
Phone: 0409 032 338
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

No references listed on IDEAS
You can help add them by filling out this form.

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:aare11:100695. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.