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Customs Modernization Initiatives : Case Studies


  • Luc De Wulf
  • José B. Sokol


This volume presents case studies of customs modernization initiatives in eight developing countries: Bolivia, Ghana, Morocco, Mozambique, Peru, the Philippines, Turkey, and Uganda. The purpose of these case studies was to obtain a firsthand view of how these countries undertook customs reforms and to assess their success. The overall lessons learned from these studies are presented in chapter 2 of the Customs Modernization Handbook (World Bank forthcoming), a companion volume that provides policymakers, practitioners, and project managers from development agencies with an overview of the key issues they need to address in preparing and implementing customs modernization initiatives. The audience for the Customs Modernization Handbook is customs officials who are called on to design and implement customs reform and modernization strategies, as well as staff members of the World Bank and of other multilateral and bilateral development agencies who support developing countries in implementing such strategies. All the case studies except for the one on Ghana were prepared using basically the same methodology, which aimed at identifying the origins of the reforms, the main drivers, and the outcomes. The Ghana case study is somewhat different, because it focuses on how the automation of trade and customs processes took the lead in the trade facilitation and customs reform.

Suggested Citation

  • Luc De Wulf & José B. Sokol, 2004. "Customs Modernization Initiatives : Case Studies," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 14911, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:14911

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    Cited by:

    1. Jana Hönke & Ivan Cuesta-Fernandez, 2018. "Mobilising security and logistics through an African port: A controversies approach to infrastructure," Mobilities, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 246-260, March.
    2. Jorge García García & David Camilo López & Enrique Montes Uribe, 2016. "Los costos de comerciar en Colombia: aproximación basada en una comparación de precios," Coyuntura Económica, Fedesarrollo, vol. 46(2), pages 75-139, December.
    3. Rudzītis Normunds & Čevers Aldis, 2015. "Development of Customs Fiscal Function in Latvia," Economics and Business, Sciendo, vol. 27(1), pages 23-28, August.
    4. Laajaj, Rachid & Eslava, Marcela & Kinda, Tidiane, 2023. "The costs of bureaucracy and corruption at customs: Evidence from the computerization of imports in Colombia," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 225(C).
    5. Finger, J. Michael & Wilson, John S., 2006. "Implementing a WTO agreement on trade facilitation : what makes sense ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3971, The World Bank.
    6. Thomas Cantens, 2010. "Is it Possible to Reform a Customs Administration?: The Role of the Customs Elite on the Reform Process in Cameroon," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2010-118, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    7. World Bank & International Finance Corporation, "undated". "Doing Business in the East African Community 2011," World Bank Publications - Reports 27390, The World Bank Group.
    8. J. Michael Finger & John S. Wilson, 2007. "Implementing A Trade Facilitation Agreement In The Wto: What Makes Sense?," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(3), pages 335-355, August.
    9. Luc De Wulf & José B. Sokol, 2005. "Customs Modernization Handbook," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 7216, December.


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