IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

A latent class analysis towards stability and changes in breadwinning patterns among coupled households


  • Pennoni Fulvia

    () (Department of Statistics and Quantitative Methods, University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Bicocca degli Arcimboldi,8, 20126Milano)

  • Nakai Miki

    () (College of Social Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 56-1 Tojiin Kitamachi, Kyoto603-8577Japan)


A latent class model is proposed to examine couples’ breadwinning typologies and explain the wage differentials according to the socio-demographic characteristics of the society with data collected through surveys. We derive an ordinal variable indicating the couple’s income provision-role type and suppose the existence of an underlying discrete latent variable to model the effect of covariates. We use a two-step maximum likelihood inference conducted to account for concomitant variables, informative sampling scheme and missing responses. The weighted log-likelihood is maximised through the Expectation-Maximization algorithm and information criteria are used to develop the model selection. Predictions are made on the basis of the maximum posterior probabilities. Disposing of data collected in Japan over thirty years we compare couples’ breadwinning patterns across time. We provide some evidence of the gender wage-gap and we show that it can be attributed to the fact that, especially in Japan, duties and responsibilities for the child care are supported exclusively by women.

Suggested Citation

  • Pennoni Fulvia & Nakai Miki, 2019. "A latent class analysis towards stability and changes in breadwinning patterns among coupled households," Dependence Modeling, De Gruyter, vol. 7(1), pages 234-246, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:vrs:demode:v:7:y:2019:i:1:p:234-246:n:12

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Fulvia Pennoni & Ewa Genge, 2020. "Analysing the course of public trust via hidden Markov models: a focus on the Polish society," Statistical Methods & Applications, Springer;Società Italiana di Statistica, vol. 29(2), pages 399-425, June.

    More about this item


    Akaike information criterion; Expectation-Maximization algorithm; gender inequality; household income composition; weighted log-likelihood; 62C12; 62D05; 62H12; 62P25; 91B40;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C00 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - General - - - General
    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • Z13 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Language; Social and Economic Stratification


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:vrs:demode:v:7:y:2019:i:1:p:234-246:n:12. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Peter Golla). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.