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Dimensions of Proximity and Knowledge Bases: Innovation between Spatial and Non-spatial Factors


  • Jannika Mattes


Mattes J. Dimensions of proximity and knowledge bases: innovation between spatial and non-spatial factors, Regional Studies . Innovations face the challenge of integrating knowledge from heterogeneous sources by establishing an appropriate level of proximity. Proximity is thereby not a purely spatial phenomenon, but also includes organizational, institutional, social and cognitive dimensions. Geographical and social proximity are thereby auxiliary factors, whereas organizational, institutional and cognitive proximity act as critical enablers for learning. These dimensions can be connected to synthetic, analytical and symbolic knowledge bases. They thereby trigger a dynamic trade-off between various forms of proximity, whereby the proximity form varies depending on the underlying knowledge base. Hence, innovation is a complex combination of spatial and non-spatial factors. Mattes J. 空间毗邻性所涉及的层面及知识基础:基于空间与非空间因素的创新,区域研究。创 新试图通过构建特定层面的空间毗邻性来应对整合异质性知识这一挑战。毗邻性因此 不仅限于单纯的空间现象,同时还涉及到组织、制度、社会以及认知等多层面要素。 在学习过程的形成中,地理以及社会毗邻性成为辅助要素,而组织、制度以及认知毗 邻性发挥了关键性作用。上述各层面与综合性、分析性以及象征性的知识基础相关联 ,引发了基于不同知识基础的多种形式的毗邻性之间多样化的相互权衡过程。因此, 创新是一个复杂的空间与非空间要素的综合体。 毗邻性 知识基础 学习 学习区域 地理毗邻性 Mattes J. Les dimensions des bases de proximité et de connaissance: l'innovation entre des facteurs géographiques et non-géographiques, Regional Studies . Les innovations font face au défi de l'intégration de la connaissance provenant des sources hétérogènes en établissant un niveau de proximité approprié. Il s'ensuit, alors, que la proximité n'est pas un phénomène purement géographique mais comprend également des dimensions organisationnelle, institutionnelle, sociale et cognitive. Les proximités géographique et sociale sont, donc, des facteurs auxiliaires, tandis que les proximités organisationnelle, institutionnelle et cognitive constituent des facteurs clés qui favorisent la connaissance. On peut lier ces dimensions à des bases de connaissance synthétique, analytique et symbolique. De cette façon, elles déclenchent un compromis dynamique entre divers types de proximité selon lesquels la proximité varie en fonction de la base de connaissance sous-jacente. Donc, l'innovation s'avère une combinaison complexe de facteurs géographiques et non-géographiques. Proximité Base de connaissance Apprentissage Régions d'apprentissage Proximité géographique Mattes J. Dimensionen von Nähe und Wissensbasen. Innovation zwischen räumlichen und nicht-räumlichen Faktoren, Regional Studies . Bei Innovationen ergibt sich das Problem, dass Wissen aus heterogenen Quellen durch Festlegung eines angemessenen Maßes an Nähe integriert werden muss. Nähe ist somit kein rein räumliches Phänomen, sondern umfasst auch organisationelle, institutionelle, soziale und kognitive Dimensionen. Geografische und soziale Nähe sind hierbei Hilfsfaktoren, während die organisationelle, institutionelle und kognitive Nähe als zentrale Faktoren zur Ermöglichung von Lernen wirken. Diese Dimensionen lassen sich mit synthetischen, analytischen und symbolischen Wissensbasen verknüpfen. Auf diese Weise lösen sie einen dynamischen Ausgleich zwischen verschiedenen Formen der Nähe aus, bei dem die Form der Nähe je nach der zugrundeliegenden Wissensbasis unterschiedlich ausfällt. Innovation ist also eine komplexe Kombination aus räumlichen und nicht-räumlichen Faktoren. Nähe Wissensbasis Lernen Lernregionen Geo grafische Nähe Mattes J. Dimensiones de proximidad y de las bases de conocimiento: innovación entre factores espaciales y no espaciales, Regional Studies . En el campo de las innovaciones surge el problema de integrar el conocimiento de fuentes heterogéneas estableciendo un nivel apropiado de proximidad. La proximidad no es, por tanto, un fenómeno puramente espacial sino que también incluye dimensiones organizativas, institucionales, sociales y cognitivas. Por consiguiente, las proximidades geográfica y social son factores auxiliares, mientras que las proximidades organizativa, institucional y cognitiva actúan como activadores fundamentales del aprendizaje. Estas dimensiones pueden conectarse a bases de conocimiento sintético, analítico y simbólico. En este sentido activan un intercambio dinámico entre las diferentes formas de proximidad de modo que la forma de proximidad varía en función de la base de conocimiento subyacente. Por ende, la innovación es una combinación compleja de factores espaciales y no espaciales. Proximidad Base de conocimiento Aprendizaje Regiones de aprendizaje Proximidad geográfica

Suggested Citation

  • Jannika Mattes, 2012. "Dimensions of Proximity and Knowledge Bases: Innovation between Spatial and Non-spatial Factors," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(8), pages 1085-1099, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:46:y:2012:i:8:p:1085-1099
    DOI: 10.1080/00343404.2011.552493

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    Cited by:

    1. Steinmo, Marianne & Rasmussen, Einar, 2016. "How firms collaborate with public research organizations: The evolution of proximity dimensions in successful innovation projects," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 1250-1259.
    2. Wang, Jue & Liu, Xiaming & Wei, Yingqi & Wang, Chengang, 2014. "Cultural Proximity and Local Firms’ catch up with Multinational Enterprises," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 1-13.
    3. Andrey S. Mikhaylov, 2016. "Approaches to the Identification of the Boundaries of Spatial Networks as Multidimensional Territorial Socio-economic Systems," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 6(4), pages 1696-1701.
    4. Ron Boschma, 2017. "A concise history of the knowledge base literature: challenging questions for future research," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 1721, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Sep 2017.
    5. Nobuya Fukugawa, 2016. "Knowledge creation and dissemination by Kosetsushi in sectoral innovation systems: insights from patent data," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 109(3), pages 2303-2327, December.
    6. repec:spr:nathaz:v:89:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s11069-017-3000-6 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Ibert, Oliver & Müller, Felix C., 2015. "Network dynamics in constellations of cultural differences: Relational distance in innovation processes in legal services and biotechnology," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 181-194.
    8. Liu, Ju, 2014. "How Do Geographical and Organisational Proximity Influence the Relational Pattern of MNCs’ Global Innovation Networks: An In-depth Case Study," Papers in Innovation Studies 2014/16, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
    9. repec:bla:tvecsg:v:108:y:2017:i:6:p:805-820 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Rune Dahl Fitjar & Franz Huber & Andrés Rodríguez-Pose, 2016. "Not too close, not too far: testing the Goldilocks principle of ‘optimal’ distance in innovation networks," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(6), pages 465-487, August.
    11. Friedrich Dornbusch & Sidonia von Proff & Thomas Brenner, 2013. "The organizational and regional determinants of inter-regional collaborations – Academic inventors as bridging agents," Working Papers on Innovation and Space 2013-11, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography.
    12. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:1:p:282-:d:128075 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Alexandra Rese & Anke Kutschke & Daniel Baier, 2016. "Analyzing The Relative Influence Of Supply Side, Demand Side And Regulatory Factors On The Success Of Collaborative Energy Innovation Projects," International Journal of Innovation Management (ijim), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 20(02), pages 1-43, February.
    14. Teis Hansen, 2014. "Juggling with Proximity and Distance: Collaborative Innovation Projects in the Danish Cleantech Industry," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 90(4), pages 375-402, October.
    15. Peiker Wolfdietrich & Pflanz Kai & Kujath Hans Joachim & Kulke Elmar, 2012. "The heterogeneity of internationalisation in knowledge intensive business services," Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie, De Gruyter, vol. 56(1-2), pages 209-225, October.
    16. Villani, Elisa & Rasmussen, Einar & Grimaldi, Rosa, 2017. "How intermediary organizations facilitate university–industry technology transfer: A proximity approach," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 86-102.
    17. Liu , Ju & Liefner , Ingo, 2016. "The Joint Influencing Mechanism of Proximities and Knowledge Base on Multinational Companies’ Global Innovation Networks," Papers in Innovation Studies 2016/4, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
    18. Charlie Karlsson & Börje Johansson & Kiyoshi Kobayashi & Roger R. Stough, 2014. "Knowledge, innovation and space: introduction," Chapters,in: Knowledge, Innovation and Space, chapter 1, pages 1-26 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    19. Beatriz Plaza & Pilar González-Casimiro & Paz Moral-Zuazo & Courtney Waldron, 2015. "Culture-led city brands as economic engines: theory and empirics," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 54(1), pages 179-196, January.
    20. repec:elg:eechap:14395_11 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. Robert Huggins & Piers Thompson, 2015. "Entrepreneurship, innovation and regional growth: a network theory," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 103-128, June.
    22. Davids, Mila & Frenken, Koen, 2015. "Proximity, knowledge base and the innovation process The case of Unilever’s Becel diet margarine," Papers in Innovation Studies 2015/7, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
    23. Strambach , Simone, 2015. "Combining knowledge bases in transnational innovation - microfoundations and the geography of organization," Papers in Innovation Studies 2015/10, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
    24. Karlsson, Charlie & Johansson, Börje & Kobayashi, Kiyoshi & Stough, Roger R., 2014. "Knowledge, innovation and space," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 367, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
    25. Xavier Molina-Morales, F. & Belso-Martínez, José A. & Más-Verdú, Francisco & Martínez-Cháfer, Luis, 2015. "Formation and dissolution of inter-firm linkages in lengthy and stable networks in clusters," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 68(7), pages 1557-1562.

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