IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Rigidität durch Flexibilität: flexible Arbeit und das Wachstum von Managementbürokratien


  • Alfred Kleinknecht


  • Zenlin Kwee


  • Lilyana Budyanto



Flexibility in labour markets increases transaction costs. Using organisation-level data representative for the Netherlands, we show that firms have higher shares of managers in their personnel if they employ more flexible workers. This fits to earlier observations that Anglo-Saxon countries with flexible labour markets have substantially thicker management bureaucracies than “Rhineland” countries with more regulated labour markets. We also find that percentages of managers in younger firms do not differ from those in older firms, while smaller firms have relatively more managers than larger firms. Moreover, not-for-profit and government organisations have relatively thinner management bureaucracies than private firms. Copyright ZBW and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Suggested Citation

  • Alfred Kleinknecht & Zenlin Kwee & Lilyana Budyanto, 2015. "Rigidität durch Flexibilität: flexible Arbeit und das Wachstum von Managementbürokratien," Wirtschaftsdienst, Springer;German National Library of Economics, vol. 95(12), pages 851-856, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:wirtsc:v:95:y:2015:i:12:p:851-856
    DOI: 10.1007/s10273-015-1913-9

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    More about this item


    J53; J82; M12; M54;

    JEL classification:

    • J53 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor-Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining - - - Labor-Management Relations; Industrial Jurisprudence
    • J82 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Standards - - - Labor Force Composition
    • M12 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - Personnel Management; Executives; Executive Compensation
    • M54 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Personnel Economics - - - Labor Management


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:wirtsc:v:95:y:2015:i:12:p:851-856. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Andrew Huffard) The email address of this maintainer does not seem to be valid anymore. Please ask Andrew Huffard to update the entry or send us the correct email address. General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.