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The gender gap in labor market participation and employment: A cohort analysis for West Germany

  • Bernd Fitzenberger

    ()

  • Reinhold Schnabel

    ()

  • Gaby Wunderlich

    ()

Labor market participation rates of West German females have risen during the last decades, whereas participation rates of males have declined or remained stable. Nevertheless, differences in aggregate gender specific participation rates remain. The purpose of this paper is to compare life-cycle participation and employment profiles of West German males and females of different skill levels. Going beyond the descriptive cross tabulations of participation and employment rates by year, skill level, and sex, this paper uses a model which simultaneously takes into account the effects of time, age,␣and birth cohort membership. The estimation results allow for the construction and comparison of gender and skill specific life cycle participation and employment profiles. Even though the gap in average participation and employment rates has narrowed over time, the results confirm a␣persistent gender gap in the pattern of labor market participation and employment over the life-cycle. Copyright Springer-Verlag 2004

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s00148-003-0141-6
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Article provided by Springer in its journal Population Economics.

Volume (Year): 17 (2004)
Issue (Month): 1 (February)
Pages: 83-116

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Handle: RePEc:spr:jopoec:v:17:y:2004:i:1:p:83-116
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  1. Pencavel, John, 1987. "Labor supply of men: A survey," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 1, pages 3-102 Elsevier.
  2. David Shapiro & Frank L. Mott, 1994. "Long-Term Employment and Earnings of Women in Relation to Employment Behavior Surrounding the First Birth," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(2), pages 248-275.
  3. Axel Borsch-Supan & Reinhold Schnabel, 1999. "Social Security and Retirement in Germany," NBER Chapters, in: Social Security and Retirement around the World, pages 135-180 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Eli Berman & John Bound & Stephen Machin, 1998. "Implications Of Skill-Biased Technological Change: International Evidence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 113(4), pages 1245-1279, November.
  5. Killingsworth, Mark R. & Heckman, James J., 1987. "Female labor supply: A survey," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 103-204 Elsevier.
  6. Jacobsen, Joyce P., 1999. "Labor force participation," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 597-610.
  7. Antecol, Heather, 2000. "An examination of cross-country differences in the gender gap in labor force participation rates," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 409-426, July.
  8. Richard Blundell & Thomas MaCurdy, 1998. "Labour supply: a review of alternative approaches," IFS Working Papers W98/18, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  9. Fitzenberger, Bernd & Wunderlich, Gaby, 2000. "Gender wage differences in West Germany: a cohort analysis," ZEW Discussion Papers 00-48, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  10. Courtney Coile & Jonathan Gruber, 2000. "Social Security and Retirement," NBER Working Papers 7830, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Reinhard Hujer & Bernd Fitzenberger & Reinhold Schnabel & Thomas E. MaCurdy, 2001. "Testing for uniform wage trends in West-Germany: A cohort analysis using quantile regressions for censored data," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 26(1), pages 41-86.
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