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Open Innovation Diplomacy and a 21st Century Fractal Research, Education and Innovation (FREIE) Ecosystem: Building on the Quadruple and Quintuple Helix Innovation Concepts and the “Mode 3” Knowledge Production System

  • Elias Carayannis


  • David Campbell


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    Article provided by Springer in its journal Journal of the Knowledge Economy.

    Volume (Year): 2 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 3 (September)
    Pages: 327-372

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    Handle: RePEc:spr:jknowl:v:2:y:2011:i:3:p:327-372
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    1. Cinzia Colapinto & Colin Porlezza, 2012. "Innovation in Creative Industries: from the Quadruple Helix Model to the Systems Theory," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer, vol. 3(4), pages 343-353, December.
    2. Etzkowitz, Henry & Leydesdorff, Loet, 2000. "The dynamics of innovation: from National Systems and "Mode 2" to a Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 109-123, February.
    3. Fabrizio Cesaroni & Alfonso Gambardella & Walter Garcia-Fontes & Myriam Mariani, 2001. "The Chemical Sector al System. Firms, markets, institutions and the processes of knowledge creation and diffusion," LEM Papers Series 2001/17, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
    4. Loet Leydesdorff, 2012. "The Triple Helix, Quadruple Helix, …, and an N-Tuple of Helices: Explanatory Models for Analyzing the Knowledge-Based Economy?," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer, vol. 3(1), pages 25-35, March.
    5. von Zedtwitz, Maximilian & Gassmann, Oliver, 2002. "Market versus technology drive in R&D internationalization: four different patterns of managing research and development," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 569-588, May.
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