IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Diarrhea risks by exposure to livestock waste in Vietnam using quantitative microbial risk assessment


  • Thu Le-Thi

    (Hanoi School of Public Health)

  • Phuc Pham-Duc

    (Hanoi School of Public Health)

  • Christian Zurbrügg

    (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology)

  • Toan Luu-Quoc

    (Hanoi School of Public Health)

  • Huong Nguyen-Mai

    (Hanoi School of Public Health)

  • Tu Vu-Van

    (Hanoi School of Public Health)

  • Hung Nguyen-Viet

    () (Hanoi School of Public Health
    International Livestock Research Institute)


Abstract Objectives The aim of this paper was to assess the diarrhea risks caused by various pathogens among those exposed to biogas wastewater through different activities. Methods Application of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of biogas wastewater was conducted in Hanam Province, Vietnam. A total of 451 representatives from households that use biogas were interviewed about their practices of handling biogas plant and reuse of biogas effluent for irrigation. In addition, 150 samples of biogas wastewater were analyzed for Escherichia coli, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia lamblia. Risk characterization was calculated using Monte Carlo simulation. Results The annual diarrhea risk caused by exposure to biogas effluent through irrigation activities ranged from 17.4 to 21.1% (E. coli O157:H7), 1.0 to 2.3% (G. lamblia), and 0.2 to 0.5% (C. parvum), while those caused through unblocking drains connected to biogas effluent tanks were 22.0% (E. coli), 0.7% (G. lamblia), and 0.5% (C. parvum). Conclusions Further measures are needed to reduce the risk by either improving the microbial quality of biogas effluent or by ensuring the use of personal protective measures when exposed to biogas wastewater.

Suggested Citation

  • Thu Le-Thi & Phuc Pham-Duc & Christian Zurbrügg & Toan Luu-Quoc & Huong Nguyen-Mai & Tu Vu-Van & Hung Nguyen-Viet, 2017. "Diarrhea risks by exposure to livestock waste in Vietnam using quantitative microbial risk assessment," International Journal of Public Health, Springer;Swiss School of Public Health (SSPH+), vol. 62(1), pages 83-91, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:ijphth:v:62:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s00038-016-0917-6
    DOI: 10.1007/s00038-016-0917-6

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to the full text of the articles in this series is restricted.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. repec:aph:ajpbhl:1991:81:6:709-713_9 is not listed on IDEAS
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:12:p:4395-:d:185287 is not listed on IDEAS


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:ijphth:v:62:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s00038-016-0917-6. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Mallaigh Nolan). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.