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Demographic Variables in Demand Systems: The Case for Generality


  • Ray, Ranjan


This paper provides evidence in favour of greater generality in the demographic demand literature. We propose two demographic demand procedures. One extends the German model by allowing non-additive interaction between 'overheads' and 'Barten scaling.' The other extends 'Price Scaling,' by allowing the equivalence scale to vary with utility, and offers a test of 'Equivalence Scale Exactness' (ESE). The rejection of ESE is robust to the assumed demand functional forms (RNLPS, QAIDS), to items chosen, and the estimation method (MLE, GMM). The results show that published cell averages yield well determined estimates of the demographic generalisation parameters.

Suggested Citation

  • Ray, Ranjan, 1996. "Demographic Variables in Demand Systems: The Case for Generality," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 21(2), pages 307-315.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:empeco:v:21:y:1996:i:2:p:307-15

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Dharamsi, Shafik & MacEntee, Michael I., 2002. "Dentistry and distributive justice," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 323-329, July.
    2. Grytten, Jostein & Holst, Dorthe & Laake, Peter, 1990. "Supplier inducement : Its effect on dental services in Norway," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 483-491, December.
    3. Koenker, Roger & Bassett, Gilbert, Jr, 1982. "Robust Tests for Heteroscedasticity Based on Regression Quantiles," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 43-61, January.
    4. Juhn, Chinhui & Murphy, Kevin M & Pierce, Brooks, 1993. "Wage Inequality and the Rise in Returns to Skill," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(3), pages 410-442, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. J. V. Meenakshi & Ranjan Ray, 1999. "Regional differences in India's food expenditure pattern: a complete demand systems approach," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(1), pages 47-74.
    2. Garcia-Diaz Rocio, 2012. "Demand-Based Cost-of-Children Estimates and Child Poverty," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 12(1), pages 1-32, January.
    3. Laura Blow, 2003. "Demographics in demand systems," IFS Working Papers W03/18, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    4. Lyssiotou, Panayiota, 2012. "Demographics and demand: Evaluation of alternative functional forms," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 117(3), pages 627-631.

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