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Adjustment Costs and Time-to-Build in Factor Demand in the U.S. Manufacturing Industry


  • Palm, Franz C
  • Peeters, H M M
  • Pfann, G A


In order to explain cyclical behavior of factor demand, the static neoclassical model of the firm has been extended to include either adjustment costs (e.g. Lucas (1967) or time-to-build considerations in Kydland and Prescott (1982). This paper presents an intertemporal factor demand model which accounts for adjustment costs and gestation lags. The closed form solution of the model is a highly restricted vector ARMA-process that is estimated using quarterly data for the manufacturing industry in the U.S., 1960-1988. The main conclusion is that both sources of dynamics of factor demand are identifiable and found to be empirically of importance.

Suggested Citation

  • Palm, Franz C & Peeters, H M M & Pfann, G A, 1993. "Adjustment Costs and Time-to-Build in Factor Demand in the U.S. Manufacturing Industry," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 18(4), pages 639-671.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:empeco:v:18:y:1993:i:4:p:639-71

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Park, Joon Y, 1992. "Canonical Cointegrating Regressions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(1), pages 119-143, January.
    2. Peter C.B. Phillips & Sam Ouliaris & Joon Y. Park, 1988. "Testing for a Unit Root in the Presence of a Maintained Trend," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 880, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    3. Peter C. B. Phillips & Mico Loretan, 1991. "Estimating Long-run Economic Equilibria," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(3), pages 407-436.
    4. Stock, James H, 1988. "A Reexamination of Friedman's Consumption Puzzle," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 6(4), pages 401-407, October.
    5. Cochrane, John H. & Sbordone, Argia M., 1988. "Multivariate estimates of the permanent components of GNP and stock prices," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 255-296.
    6. Phillips, P C B, 1987. "Time Series Regression with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 277-301, March.
    7. Engle, Robert F, 1974. "Band Spectrum Regression," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 15(1), pages 1-11, February.
    8. Campbell, John Y, 1987. "Does Saving Anticipate Declining Labor Income? An Alternative Test of the Permanent Income Hypothesis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(6), pages 1249-1273, November.
    9. Phillips, P C B, 1987. "Time Series Regression with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 277-301, March.
    10. Peter C.B. Phillips, 1988. "Spectral Regression for Cointegrated Time Series," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 872, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    11. Geweke, John F. & Singleton, Kenneth J., 1981. "Latent variable models for time series : A frequency domain approach with an application to the permanent income hypothesis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 287-304, December.
    12. John H. Cochrane, 1990. "Univariate vs. Multivariate Forecasts of GNP Growth and Stock Returns: Evidence and Implications for the Persistence of Shocks, Detrending Methods," NBER Working Papers 3427, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Peeters, Marga, 1998. " Persistence, Asymmetries and Interrelation in Factor Demand," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 100(4), pages 747-764, December.
    2. Tsoukalas, John D., 2011. "Time to build capital: Revisiting investment-cash-flow sensitivities," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1000-1016, July.
    3. Charles Himmelberg & Alessandra del Boca & Marzio Galeotti & Paola Rota, 2005. "Investment and Time to Plan: A Comparison of Structures vs. Equipment in a Panel of Italian Firms," Working Papers 2005.54, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    4. Millar, Jonathan N. & Oliner, Stephen D. & Sichel, Daniel E., 2016. "Time-to-plan lags for commercial construction projects," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 75-89.
    5. Kölling, Arnd, 1998. "Dynamische Arbeitsnachfrage und asymmetrisches Anpassungsverhalten in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland : eine Untersuchung mit Daten aus dem IAB-Betriebspanel (Dynamic labour demand and asymmetrical adj," Mitteilungen aus der Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany], vol. 31(4), pages 637-647.
    6. Palm, Franz C. & Peeters, Marga & Pfann, Gerard A., 1993. "The dynamics of investment and labour demand: Theoretical issues and an application to the Dutch manufacturing industry," MPRA Paper 33042, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. repec:iab:iabmit:v:31:i:4:p:637-647 is not listed on IDEAS

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