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Internationalisation et localisation des services : une analyse sectorielle et fonctionnelle appliquée aux firmes multinationales en Europe

Listed author(s):
  • Loriane Py
  • Fabrice Hatem

[eng] International investment in services has risen substantially in the past twenty years. The trend is visible at two levels: (1) the sector level, via the internationalization of service sectors; (2) the functional level, via the relocation abroad of service functions such as head offices, R& D centres, distribution facilities, sales offices, provision of services, and call centres and online services. Given this context, it is important to identify the criteria that determine the relocation of such activities abroad. Our article seeks to verify the existence of specific location criteria for the service sectors (as distinct from manufacturing) and for service functions (as distinct from production facilities). The econometric analysis is based on 13,902 investment decisions by multinational firms in Europe in the period 2002-2006. The location criteria already identified for manufacturing activities also apply to services, with some specific adjustments. The analysis by industry shows that market access and local skills play a particularly important role in location decisions in the service sectors and suggests that the most developed economies remain attractive for services. The analysis by function confirms these results. The same factors influence location decisions for service functions, while cost considerations are more decisive for production facilities. However, these results do not apply to all service functions, particularly call centres and online services. Furthermore, the existence of complementarities in location rationales suggests that, in the longer run, service functions may follow the trend towards international redeployment of production capacity to Eastern Europe. [fre] Les investissements internationaux de services ont connu un essor considérable ces vingt dernières années. Ce mouvement s’observe au niveau sectoriel à travers l’internationalisation de secteurs de services, mais aussi au niveau fonctionnel, à travers l’implantation à l’étranger de fonctions de services: quartiers généraux, centres de recherche et développement, sites de distribution, bureaux commerciaux, prestations de services ou centres d’appels et de services en ligne. Dans ce contexte, il paraît important d’identifier les critères de localisation à l’étranger de ces activités: cet article cherche à vérifier l’existence de critères de localisation spécifiques aux secteurs des services (par rapport au secteur manufacturier) et aux fonctions de services (par rapport aux sites de production). L’analyse économétrique s’appuie sur 13 902 décisions d’investissements réalisées par des firmes multinationales en Europe au cours de la période 2002-2006. Les critères de localisation déjà identifiés pour les activités manufacturières s’appliquent également aux services avec cependant des spécificités. L’analyse par secteur montre que l’accès au marché et la qualification de la population jouent un rôle particulièrement important dans la localisation des secteurs de services et suggère que les économies les plus développées restent attractives pour les services. L’analyse par fonction confirme ces résultats. Ces mêmes facteurs influencent la localisation des fonctions de services alors que les considérations de coûts affectent davantage celle des sites de production. Cependant, ces résultats ne valent pas pour toutes les fonctions de services, en particulier pour les centres d’appels et de services en ligne. De plus, l’existence de complémentarités dans les logiques de localisation suggère qu’à terme, les fonctions de services pourraient suivre le mouvement de redéploiement international des sites de production vers l’Est de l’Europe.

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Economie et statistique.

Volume (Year): 426 (2009)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 67-95

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Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_2009_num_426_1_8043
Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.2009.8043
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