IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

The Utilisation of Education and Skills: Incidence and Determinants among Pakistani Graduates

Listed author(s):
  • Shujaat Farooq

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE), Islamabad)

Registered author(s):

    This study estimates the incidence of job mismatch and its determinants in Pakistan, based on three categories: (i) qualification mismatch, (i) skill mismatch, and (iii) field-of-study mismatch. It uses both primary and secondary datasets that target graduates employed by the formal sector. The study measures the qualification mismatch using three approaches and finds that about one third of the graduates sampled face a qualification mismatch. Similarly, more than one fourth are mismatched in terms of skill, about half are over-skilled, and half are underskilled. The analysis also shows that 11.3 percent hold jobs that are irrelevant to their discipline and 13.8 percent have jobs that are slightly relevant to their discipline. Women are more likely than men to be over-qualified, and age has a negative association with over-qualification. Graduates who belong to political families have a better qualification match but a lower field-of-study match. While a higher level of schooling prevents graduates from being under-qualified, it also raises the likelihood of being over-qualified and over-skilled. Occupation-specific disciplines offer more protection against the possibility of job mismatch. Both fulltime education and semester-system education reduce job mismatch, while distance learning raises job mismatch. The phenomena of being over-qualified and overskilled is more prevalent in lower occupations, as is field-of-study mismatch.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Article provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.

    Volume (Year): 50 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 219-244

    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:50:y:2011:i:3:p:219-244
    Contact details of provider: Postal:
    P.O.Box 1091, Islamabad-44000

    Phone: (92)(51)9248051
    Fax: (92)(51)9248065
    Web page:

    More information through EDIRC

    No references listed on IDEAS
    You can help add them by filling out this form.

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:50:y:2011:i:3:p:219-244. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Khurram Iqbal)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.