IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

The economic background of Rizal’s time


  • Benito J. Legarda Jr.


We survey economic conditions just before and during the lifetime of Jose Rizal, roughly leading to the second half of the 19th century, on three levels: that of the world, of the Spanish Empire, and of the Philippines. We show how in this period, coinciding with the first era of globalization, of discord within the Spanish Empire and of incipient prosperity in the archipelago, the economic and social foundations were laid for Rizal and his contemporaries to conceive of and demand greater autonomy and, ultimately, independence.

Suggested Citation

  • Benito J. Legarda Jr., 2011. "The economic background of Rizal’s time," Philippine Review of Economics, University of the Philippines School of Economics and Philippine Economic Society, vol. 48(2), pages 1-22, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:phs:prejrn:v:48:y:2011:i:2:p:1-22

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ballesteros, Marife M., 2000. "Land Use Planning in Metro Manila and the Urban Fringe: Implications on the Land and Real Estate Market," Discussion Papers DP 2000-20, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Benito Legarda, Jr, 2012. "The Spanish ßag over an Anglo-Chinese commercial colony: the Philippines in the 19th century," Philippine Review of Economics, University of the Philippines School of Economics and Philippine Economic Society, vol. 49(2), pages 41-50, December.

    More about this item


    globalization; Spanish Empire; Spanish economic policy; 19th-century Philippine economic conditions;

    JEL classification:

    • N00 - Economic History - - General - - - General
    • N43 - Economic History - - Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation - - - Europe: Pre-1913
    • N45 - Economic History - - Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation - - - Asia including Middle East
    • N75 - Economic History - - Economic History: Transport, International and Domestic Trade, Energy, and Other Services - - - Asia including Middle East
    • F54 - International Economics - - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy - - - Colonialism; Imperialism; Postcolonialism


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:phs:prejrn:v:48:y:2011:i:2:p:1-22. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Reuben T. Campos). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.