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First borrowing period at Ottoman Empire (1854-1876): Budget policies and consequences


  • Seda Ozekicioglu

    () (Faculty of Economics, Istanbul University, Turkey.)

  • Halil Ozekicioglu

    () (Faculty of Journalism, Cumhuriyet Un?versity, Turkey.)


The financial troubles of Ottoman Empire which started in 16th century reached its ultimate point in 19th century. The Ottoman Empire searching to get rid of these troubles directed towards making some reform activities during the Tanzimat Era. Some of the money needed for these reform activities was met via the external borrowings which the Ottoman Empire had applied reluctantly and then could not preclude. During the period of 1854-1876 which was included in the Tanzimat Era and called as the first borrowing period, the Ottoman Empire signed 15 external borrowing agreements totally. However, the loans received as a result of these agreements were not used properly and then the budget deficit could not be settled. At the end of these developments, a financial bankruptcy was experienced in the Ottoman Empire in 1876.

Suggested Citation

  • Seda Ozekicioglu & Halil Ozekicioglu, 2010. "First borrowing period at Ottoman Empire (1854-1876): Budget policies and consequences," Business and Economic Horizons (BEH), Prague Development Center, vol. 3(3), pages 28-46, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:pdc:jrnbeh:v:3:y:2010:i:3:p:28-46

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    More about this item


    Ottoman empire; debt; financial crisis; Tanzimat period; budget deficit;

    JEL classification:

    • H61 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Budget; Budget Systems
    • H62 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Deficit; Surplus
    • H63 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Debt; Debt Management; Sovereign Debt
    • N15 - Economic History - - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations - - - Asia including Middle East
    • N95 - Economic History - - Regional and Urban History - - - Asia including Middle East


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