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Women, Wages and Industrial Agreements


  • Gillian Whitehouse

    () (University of Queensland)

  • Betty Frino

    (University of Sydney)


This paper focuses on the gendered effects of the current combination of industrial agreements in Australia - both in the sense of the distribution of men and women across different types of agreements, and gender inequality within agreement types. We draw on Australian Bureau of Statistics data to illustrate the uneven distribution of men and women between different methods of setting pay and conditions, and consider implications of this for gender earnings equity. We also investigate gender differences in pay increases and working conditions within a recent sample of collective enterprise agreements. Overall, the paper illustrates some of the on-going risks for gender equity under current wage bargaining arrangements.

Suggested Citation

  • Gillian Whitehouse & Betty Frino, 2003. "Women, Wages and Industrial Agreements," Australian Journal of Labour Economics (AJLE), Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC), Curtin Business School, vol. 6(4), pages 579-596, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:ozl:journl:v:6:y:2003:i:4:p:579-596

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. David Metcalf, 2002. "Unions and Productivity, Financial Performance and Investment: International Evidence," CEP Discussion Papers dp0539, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    2. Stewart, Mark B, 1990. "Union Wage Differentials, Product Market Influences and the Division of Rents," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 100(403), pages 1122-1137, December.
    3. Disney, Richard & Gosling, Amanda & Machin, Stephen, 1996. "What Has Happened to Union Recognition in Britain?," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 63(249), pages 1-18, February.
    4. Lars Calmfors, 1993. "Centralisation of Wage Bargaining and Macroeconomic Performance: A Survey," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 131, OECD Publishing.
    5. Brown, W & Hudson, M & Deakin, S & Pratten, C, 2001. "The Limits of Statutory Trade Union Recognition," Working Papers wp199, Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge.
    6. William Brown & Simon Deakin & David Nash & Sarah Oxenbridge, 2000. "The Employment Contract: From Collective Procedures to Individual Rights," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 38(4), pages 611-629, December.
    7. W Brown & P Marginson & J Welsh, 2001. "The Management of Pay as the Influence of Collective Bargaining Diminishes," Working Papers wp213, Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge.
    8. Toke Skovsgaard Aidt & Vania Sena, 2005. "Unions: Rent Creators or Extractors?," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 107(1), pages 103-121, March.
    9. Robert J. Flanagan, 1999. "Macroeconomic Performance and Collective Bargaining: An International Perspective," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(3), pages 1150-1175, September.
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    More about this item


    Wages; Compensation and Labor Costs - Other Economics of Gender Discrimination - Other;

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J39 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Other
    • J79 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Other


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