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Smallholder Diversification and Income Growth in Zambia

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  • Arne Bigsten
  • Sven Tengstam

Abstract

This paper uses nationally representative panel data to analyse the relationship between income diversification and incomes for Zambian smallholder households. We show that shifting to a higher degree of diversification is generally associated with higher incomes. We find that diversification is driven by endowments and access to markets and finance. Education opens up opportunities for well-paid non-agricultural activities, while land shortage forces distress diversification into agricultural wage work. Copyright 2011 , Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Arne Bigsten & Sven Tengstam, 2011. "Smallholder Diversification and Income Growth in Zambia," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 20(5), pages 781-822, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:jafrec:v:20:y:2011:i:5:p:781-822
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1093/jae/ejr017
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    Cited by:

    1. Birthal, Pratap Singh & Roy, Devesh & Negi, Digvijay S., 2015. "Agricultural diversification and poverty in India:," IFPRI discussion papers 1446, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    2. Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés & Hardy, Daniel, 2015. "Addressing poverty and inequality in the rural economy from a global perspective," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 63257, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    3. repec:oup:jafrec:v:27:y:2018:i:1:p:127-148. is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Tanui, Joseph & Groeneveld, Rolf & Klomp, Jeroen & Mowo, Jeremiahs & Ierland, Ekko C. van, 2013. "Explaining investments in sustainable land management: The role of various income sources in the smallholder farming systems of western Kenya," 2013 AAAE Fourth International Conference, September 22-25, 2013, Hammamet, Tunisia 161275, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE).
    5. Vimefall, Elin, 2015. "Income diversification among female-headed farming households," Working Papers 2015:11, Örebro University, School of Business.
    6. Michler, Jeffrey D. & Josephson, Anna L., 2017. "To Specialize or Diversify: Agricultural Diversity and Poverty Dynamics in Ethiopia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 214-226.
    7. Vimefall, Elin, 2015. "Income diversification and working children," Working Papers 2015:8, Örebro University, School of Business.
    8. Bigsten, Arne, 2014. "Dimensions of African inequality," WIDER Working Paper Series 050, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    9. Josephson, Anna Leigh & Michler, Jeffrey D., 2015. "To Specialize or Diversify: Agricultural Diversity and Poverty Persistence in Ethiopia," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 212459, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    10. Birthal, Pratap S. & Roy, Devesh & Negi, Digvijay S., 2015. "Assessing the Impact of Crop Diversification on Farm Poverty in India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 70-92.
    11. Baird, Timothy D. & Gray, Clark L., 2014. "Livelihood Diversification and Shifting Social Networks of Exchange: A Social Network Transition?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 14-30.

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