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Do Single Mothers Face Greater Constraints to Workforce Participation in Non-Metropolitan Areas?


  • Bradford F. Mills
  • Gautam Hazarika


Increasing workforce participation among single mothers is the primary goal of recent welfare reform measures. This article shows that increased workforce participation in the mid to late 1990s led to improvements in the economic well-being of non-metropolitan and metropolitan area families headed by single mothers. Differential benefits and costs of workforce participation of single mothers in non-metropolitan and metropolitan areas are then examined. Single mothers are found to face lower costs to workforce participation and receive lower hourly earnings in non-metropolitan areas than in metropolitan areas. Young children do, however, raise workforce participation costs more in non-metropolitan areas. Copyright 2003, Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Bradford F. Mills & Gautam Hazarika, 2003. "Do Single Mothers Face Greater Constraints to Workforce Participation in Non-Metropolitan Areas?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 85(1), pages 143-161.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:ajagec:v:85:y:2003:i:1:p:143-161

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    Cited by:

    1. Mosley, Jane M. & Miller, Kathleen K., 2001. "What The Research Says About Spatial Variations In Factors Affecting Poverty," Research Briefs 18922, Oregon State University, Rural Poverty Research Center (RPRC).
    2. Mills, Bradford F., 2002. "Changes In The Well-Being Of Nonmetropolitan Single-Mother Families: A Semi-Parametric Analysis," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 1-24, December.
    3. Mark D. Partridge & Dan S. Rickman, 2008. "Distance From Urban Agglomeration Economies And Rural Poverty," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(2), pages 285-310.
    4. Fisher, Monica G. & Foster, Kenneth A., 2004. "Measuring The Effect Of Rural Residence On Individual Employment Outcomes: Is Rural Residence Endogenous?," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO 19928, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    5. Anastasia Snyder & Diane McLaughlin, 2006. "Economic Well-being and Cohabitation: Another Nonmetro Disadvantage?," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 27(3), pages 562-582, September.

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