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A spatial analysis of access to ATMs in Austria



This paper sheds light on the geographical distribution of automated teller machines (ATMs) in Austria. Our results indicate that Austrians live within a travel distance of 1.2 km on average of an ATM, with travel times (by car) to the closest ATM averaging 2.9 minutes. A total of 82% of the population reside within a travel distance of 2 km of an ATM and 85% of the population travel less than 5 minutes to reach the next ATM. When comparing ATM access in urban and rural areas, we find that the average distance to the closest ATM ranges from 2.1 km in municipalities with less than 2,000 inhabitants to 0.6 km in larger cities. Although our findings generally point to reasonable travel distances, on average, across Austria, a more disaggregated view allows us to identify areas where ATM access is more limited. 2.9% of the population (or some 260,000 residents) have to travel more than 5 km to reach the closest ATM. About 60% of these residents live in municipalities with less than 3,000 inhabitants and 80% in municipalities with less than 5,000 inhabitants. Municipalities with a high share of residents who have a travel distance of more than 5 km can be found in all of Austria’s nine provinces (except Vienna). These municipalities have on average 840 inhabitants.

Suggested Citation

  • Helmut Stix, 2020. "A spatial analysis of access to ATMs in Austria," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue Q3/20, pages 39-59.
  • Handle: RePEc:onb:oenbmp:y:2020:i:q3/20:b:3

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Codruta Rusu & Helmut Stix, 2017. "Cash and card payments – recent results of the Austrian payment diary survey," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue Q1/17, pages 1-35.
    2. John Bagnall & David Bounie & Kim P. Huynh & Anneke Kosse & Tobias Schmidt & Scott Schuh, 2016. "Consumer Cash Usage: A Cross-Country Comparison with Payment Diary Survey Data," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 12(4), pages 1-61, December.
    3. Helmut Stix, 2020. "The Austrian bank branch network from 2000 to 2019 from a spatial perspective," Financial Stability Report, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 40, pages 87-101.
    4. Heng Chen & Matthew Strathearn, 2020. "A Spatial Model of Bank Branches in Canada," Staff Working Papers 20-4, Bank of Canada.
    5. Anton Schautzer & Helmut Stix, 2019. "Approaching 20 years of euro cash in Austria: What has changed, and what’s next?," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue Q1-Q2/19, pages 99-112.
    6. Martin Brown & Nicole Hentschel & Hannes Mettler & Helmut Stix, 2020. "Financial Innovation, Payment Choice and Cash Demand - Causal Evidence from the Staggered Introduction of Contactless Debit Cards," Working Papers on Finance 2002, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance.
    7. Esselink, Henk & Gijsel, Lola Hernandez-van, 2017. "The use of cash by households in the euro area," Occasional Paper Series 201, European Central Bank.
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    More about this item


    ATM network; cash access points; spatial analysis;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)
    • E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money


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