Diversity and arbitrage in a regulatory breakup model
In 1999 Robert Fernholz observed an inconsistency between the normative assumption of existence of an equivalent martingale measure (EMM) and the empirical reality of diversity in equity markets. We explore a method of imposing diversity on market models by a type of antitrust regulation that is compatible with EMMs. The regulatory procedure breaks up companies that become too large, while holding the total number of companies constant by imposing a simultaneous merge of other companies. The regulatory events are assumed to have no impact on portfolio values. As an example, regulation is imposed on a market model in which diversity is maintained via a log-pole in the drift of the largest company. The result is the removal of arbitrage opportunities from this market while maintaining the market's diversity.
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- Robert Fernholz & Ioannis Karatzas & Constantinos Kardaras, 2005. "Diversity and relative arbitrage in equity markets," Finance and Stochastics, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 1-27, January.
- Jörg Osterrieder & Thorsten Rheinländer, 2006. "Arbitrage Opportunities in Diverse Markets via a Non-equivalent Measure Change," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 2(3), pages 287-301, July.
- Fernholz, Robert, 1999. "On the diversity of equity markets," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 393-417, April.
- Adrian Banner & Daniel Fernholz, 2008. "Short-term relative arbitrage in volatility-stabilized markets," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 4(4), pages 445-454, October.
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