IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Bilingual Literacy of an Indonesian Third Grader in Transnational Context


  • Firman Parlindungan
  • Irfan Rifai


Bilingual literacy practices within the power hegemony of English-only classroom are increasingly being challenged in this century. However, there remains a dearth of research on Indonesian children navigating their language and literacy learning in transnational contexts. This article examines evidences of an Indonesian – U.S. transnational third grader honing her literacy skills in the new social and schooling system. Using a case method with interviews and observations, the focal participant’s reading and writing ability was documented. Findings show that the focal participant had demonstrated emergent awareness and knowledge of English language as she engaged in print-based activities and conversations about prints. Through translanguaging, the focal participant was able to tap into a variety of linguistic and communicative resources to make sense of texts. Implications from this study highlight meaningful learning experiences for transnational students’ literacy development and how literacy learning in such contexts can be reconceptualized.

Suggested Citation

  • Firman Parlindungan & Irfan Rifai, 2022. "Bilingual Literacy of an Indonesian Third Grader in Transnational Context," World Journal of English Language, Sciedu Press, vol. 12(4), pages 1-75, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:jfr:wjel11:v:12:y:2022:i:4:p:75

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • R00 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General - - - General
    • Z0 - Other Special Topics - - General


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:jfr:wjel11:v:12:y:2022:i:4:p:75. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no bibliographic references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sciedu Press (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.