IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

A Linear Goal Programming Model for Developing Economies with an Illustration from the Agricultural Sector in Egypt


  • Mokhtar S. Bazaraa

    (Georgia Institute of Technology)

  • Aziz Bouzaher

    (Georgia Institute of Technology)


In this study we formulate a multi-regional single time period linear goal programming model for agricultural planning in a developing economy. In addition to specifying different levels of input and output for each activity, we describe explicit crop interdependencies which account for rotational requirements. Constraints are developed for land, labor, water, machinery, fertilizer, and capital resources. Economic aspects are addressed through the use of different production functions and the incorporation of several objectives. This last point marks a departure from conventional models which stress maximization of "economic welfare" defined as efficiency through maximum social product without consideration for income distribution. The emphasis on income distribution is reflected in our model in delineation of regional employment goals. In addition, foreign exchange expenditures and regional demand satisfaction goals reflect the importance of limiting foreign trade deficit and providing basic nutrition for the population. The decisions suggested by the solution include acreage allocated to different crops, sequences of crop rotations, fertilization levels, and transportation and distribution of crops and livestock among the regions. We illustrate the model using data from the agricultural regions with three cropping seasons: winter, summer, and nili (autumn). The activities covered by the model consist of ten winter crops, seven summer crops, three nili crops, two permanent crops, two pasture types, four livestock types, and three types of fertilizers. The crops are modeled in sequences to minimize the detrimental effects of cotton. The results suggested by the model show the need for using improved farming techniques through labor-intensive means to obtain a relatively higher degree of specialization and a relatively lower cotton production. This latter conclusion confirms that reached by an independent study of the U.S. Agency for International Development and the Ministry of Agriculture in Egypt. Several computer runs are conducted to test sensitivity of the results to major assumptions and goal targets. It is felt that the model presented in this study would be useful to management scientists, agricultural planners, especially those in developing countries, and to various United Nations organizations such as the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

Suggested Citation

  • Mokhtar S. Bazaraa & Aziz Bouzaher, 1981. "A Linear Goal Programming Model for Developing Economies with an Illustration from the Agricultural Sector in Egypt," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 27(4), pages 396-413, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:27:y:1981:i:4:p:396-413

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Kim, Suwon & Nam, Chan-gi & Lee, Sangwoo & Kim, Seongcheol, 2017. "A public R&D resource allocation model for 5G mobile industry in Korea," 28th European Regional ITS Conference, Passau 2017 169472, International Telecommunications Society (ITS).
    2. R. Nayak & R. Panda, 2001. "Integrated Management of a Canal Command in a River Delta using Multi-Objective Techniques," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA), Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 15(6), pages 383-401, December.
    3. El-Gayar, Omar F. & Leung, PingSun, 2001. "A multiple criteria decision making framework for regional aquaculture development," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 133(3), pages 462-482, September.
    4. repec:spr:annopr:v:251:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s10479-015-1829-1 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Hayashi, Kiyotada, 2000. "Multicriteria analysis for agricultural resource management: A critical survey and future perspectives," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 122(2), pages 486-500, April.
    6. repec:ags:eeaeje:259496 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Sutardi & bector, C. R. & Goulter, Ian, 1995. "Multiobjective water resources investment planning under budgetary uncertainty and fuzzy environment," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 82(3), pages 556-591, May.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:27:y:1981:i:4:p:396-413. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mirko Janc). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.