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El avance de China y la evolución del comercio internacional en Brasil

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  • Dos Santos, Enestor
  • Zignago, Soledad

Abstract

Aprovechando un nuevo conjunto de datos que incluye el contenido tecnológico de cada producto así como su calidad, examinamos algunos aspectos del flujo del intercambio comercial entre Brasil y China y cuestionamos la postura de que el crecimiento de China implicaría una desindustrialización de las exportaciones brasileñas. Observamos que Brasil exporta cada vez más productos con menor contenido tecnológico a China e importa cada vez más bienes con mayor contenido tecnológico. La dimensión de la calidad del conjunto de datos revela que cada país exporta al otro productos cuya calidad es básicamente baja. Mostramos que, entre 1994 y 2007, la cantidad de productos en los que los dos países tienen ventajas comparativas se redujo y que ambos países aumentaron sus ventajas comparativas en aquellos productos en los que ya llevaban ventaja en 1994 y perdieron terreno en aquellos sectores en los que gozaban de pocas ventajas en ese entonces. La exportación de productos primarios de Brasil se incrementó significativamente como resultado del crecimiento experimentado por los países asiáticos. No obstante, la exportación de productos brasileños de alto contenido tecnológico y alta calidad aumentó por encima del promedio y en mayor medida que la exportación de productos de baja tecnología y baja calidad. En líneas generales, el crecimiento de China ha dado lugar a un desplazamiento de las exportaciones brasileñas no sólo hacia los productos basados en los recursos naturales sino también hacia productos de más calidad y mayor contenido tecnológico.

Suggested Citation

  • Dos Santos, Enestor & Zignago, Soledad, 2012. "El avance de China y la evolución del comercio internacional en Brasil," Revista Integración y Comercio (Integration and Trade Journal), Inter-American Development Bank, INTAL, vol. 35(16), pages 87-107.
  • Handle: RePEc:idb:intala:jou:iyc:v:35:y:2012:i:16:p:87-107
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Lionel Fontagné & Guillaume Gaulier & Soledad Zignago, 2008. "Specialization across varieties and North-South competition," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 23, pages 51-91, January.
    2. Jorge Blázquez-Lidoy & Javier Rodríguez & Javier Santiso, 2006. "Angel or Devil? China's Trade Impact on Latin American Emerging Markets," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 252, OECD Publishing.
    3. Gaulier, Guillaume & Zignago, Soledad, 2004. "Notes on BACI (analytical database of international trade). 1989-2002 version," MPRA Paper 32401, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Lora, Eduardo, 2005. "¿Debe la América Latina temerle a China?," El Trimestre Económico, Fondo de Cultura Económica, vol. 0(287), pages 459-493, julio-sep.
    5. Nanno Mulder & Rodrigo Paiilacar & Soledad Zignago, 2009. "Market Positioning of Varieties in World Trade: is Latin America Losing Out on Asia?," Working Papers 2009-09, CEPII research center.
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    Cited by:

    1. Chen, Lurong & De Lombaerde, Philippe, 2014. "Testing the relationships between globalization, regionalization and the regional hubness of the BRICs," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 36(S1), pages 111-131.
    2. Alicia Garcia-Herrero & Enestor Dos Santos & Pablo Urbiola & Marcos Dal Bianco & Fernando Soto & Mauricio Hernandez & Rosario Sanchez & Arnulfo Rodriguez, 2014. "Competitiveness in the Latin American manufacturing sector: trends and determinants," Working Papers 1411, BBVA Bank, Economic Research Department.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    COMERCIO INTERNACIONAL; EXPORTACIONES; COMMODITIES; MERCADO DE PRODUCTOS MANUFACTURADOS; INNOVACIONES TECNOLOGICAS; DESARROLLO INDUSTRIAL; SECTOR INDUSTRIAL; CRECIMIENTO ECONOMICO;

    JEL classification:

    • F1 - International Economics - - Trade
    • F43 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Economic Growth of Open Economies
    • L5 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy
    • L6 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing
    • O14 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology
    • O25 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy - - - Industrial Policy
    • Q55 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Technological Innovation

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