IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/gam/jijerp/v17y2020i16p5770-d396822.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Analysis of Gender-Dependent Personal Protective Behaviors in a National Sample: Polish Adolescents’ COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study

Author

Listed:
  • Dominika Guzek

    (Department of Food Market and Consumer Research, Institute of Human Nutrition Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW-WULS), 02-776 Warsaw, Poland)

  • Dominika Skolmowska

    (Department of Dietetics, Institute of Human Nutrition Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW-WULS), 02-776 Warsaw, Poland)

  • Dominika Głąbska

    (Department of Dietetics, Institute of Human Nutrition Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW-WULS), 02-776 Warsaw, Poland)

Abstract

During the coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) pandemic, the basic strategy that is recommended to reduce the spread of the disease is to practice proper hand hygiene and personal protective behaviors, but among adolescents, low adherence is common. The present study aimed to assess the gender-dependent hand hygiene and personal protective behaviors in a national sample of Polish adolescents. The Polish Adolescents’ COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study was conducted in a group of 2323 secondary school students (814 males, 1509 females). Schools were chosen based on the random quota sampling procedure. The participants were surveyed to assess their knowledge and beliefs associated with hand hygiene and personal protection, as well as their actual behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority of respondents gave proper answers when asked about their knowledge. However, females displayed a higher level of knowledge ( p < 0.05). Most of the respondents declared not leaving home, handwashing, using alcohol-based hand rub, avoiding contact with those who may be sick, and avoiding public places as their personal protective behaviors. They declared using face masks and gloves after the legal regulation requiring people to cover their nose and mouth in public places was enacted in Poland. Regarding the use of face masks and not touching the face, no gender-dependent differences were observed, while for all the other behaviors, females declared more adherence than males ( p < 0.05). Females also declared a higher daily frequency of handwashing ( p < 0.0001) and washing their hands always when necessary more often than males (68.2% vs. 54.1%; p < 0.0001). Males more often indicated various reasons for not handwashing, including that there is no need to do it, they do not feel like doing it, they have no time to do it, or they forget about it ( p < 0.0001), while females pointed out side effects (e.g., skin problems) as the reason ( p = 0.0278). Females more often declared handwashing in circumstances associated with socializing, being exposed to contact with other people and health ( p < 0.05), and declared always including the recommended steps in their handwashing procedure ( p < 0.05). The results showed that female secondary school students exhibited a higher level of knowledge on hand hygiene and personal protection, as well as better behaviors, compared to males. However, irrespective of gender, some false beliefs and improper behaviors were observed, which suggests that education is necessary, especially in the period of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Suggested Citation

  • Dominika Guzek & Dominika Skolmowska & Dominika Głąbska, 2020. "Analysis of Gender-Dependent Personal Protective Behaviors in a National Sample: Polish Adolescents’ COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 17(16), pages 1-22, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jijerp:v:17:y:2020:i:16:p:5770-:d:396822
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/16/5770/pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/16/5770/
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Karl Peltzer & Supa Pengpid, 2014. "Oral and Hand Hygiene Behaviour and Risk Factors among In-School Adolescents in Four Southeast Asian Countries," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 11(3), pages 1-13, March.
    2. Aaron Lawson & Marie Vaganay-Miller, 2019. "The Effectiveness of a Poster Intervention on Hand Hygiene Practice and Compliance When Using Public Restrooms in a University Setting," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 16(24), pages 1-12, December.
    3. Cuiyan Wang & Riyu Pan & Xiaoyang Wan & Yilin Tan & Linkang Xu & Cyrus S. Ho & Roger C. Ho, 2020. "Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 17(5), pages 1-25, March.
    4. Kelly R Moran & Sara Y Del Valle, 2016. "A Meta-Analysis of the Association between Gender and Protective Behaviors in Response to Respiratory Epidemics and Pandemics," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 11(10), pages 1-25, October.
    5. Xuyu Chen & Li Ran & Qing Liu & Qikai Hu & Xueying Du & Xiaodong Tan, 2020. "Hand Hygiene, Mask-Wearing Behaviors and Its Associated Factors during the COVID-19 Epidemic: A Cross-Sectional Study among Primary School Students in Wuhan, China," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 17(8), pages 1-11, April.
    6. Lopez-Quintero, C. & Freeman, P. & Neumark, Y., 2009. "Hand washing among school children in Bogotá, Colombia," American Journal of Public Health, American Public Health Association, vol. 99(1), pages 94-101.
    7. Shibo Jiang, 2020. "Don’t rush to deploy COVID-19 vaccines and drugs without sufficient safety guarantees," Nature, Nature, vol. 579(7799), pages 321-321, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Yanjing Gao & Lijun Chen, 2022. "Impact of COVID-19 Risk Perception on Residents’ Behavioural Intention towards Forest Therapy Tourism," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(18), pages 1-18, September.
    2. Ahmed Al-Rawi & Maliha Siddiqi & Clare Wenham & Julia Smith, 2022. "The gendered dimensions of the anti-mask and anti-lockdown movement on social media," Palgrave Communications, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 9(1), pages 1-10, December.
    3. Víctor Revilla-Cuesta & Marta Skaf & Juan Manuel Varona & Vanesa Ortega-López, 2021. "The Outbreak of the COVID-19 Pandemic and its Social Impact on Education: Were Engineering Teachers Ready to Teach Online?," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(4), pages 1-23, February.
    4. Filip Raciborski & Mateusz Jankowski & Mariusz Gujski & Jarosław Pinkas & Piotr Samel-Kowalik & Artur Zaczyński & Igor Pańkowski & Kamil Rakocy & Waldemar Wierzba, 2020. "Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Police Officers in Poland—Implications for Public Health Policies," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 17(23), pages 1-16, December.
    5. Bartosz M. Nowak & Cezary Miedziarek & Szymon Pełczyński & Piotr Rzymski, 2021. "Misinformation, Fears and Adherence to Preventive Measures during the Early Phase of COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study in Poland," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(22), pages 1-11, November.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Bach Xuan Tran & Giang Hai Ha & Long Hoang Nguyen & Giang Thu Vu & Men Thi Hoang & Huong Thi Le & Carl A. Latkin & Cyrus S.H. Ho & Roger C.M. Ho, 2020. "Studies of Novel Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Global Analysis of Literature," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 17(11), pages 1-16, June.
    2. Santosh Jatrana & Md. Mehedi Hasan & Abdullah A. Mamun & Yaqoot Fatima, 2021. "Global Variation in Hand Hygiene Practices Among Adolescents: The Role of Family and School-Level Factors," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(9), pages 1-14, May.
    3. Rocío Lavigne-Cervan & Borja Costa-López & Rocío Juárez-Ruiz de Mier & Marta Sánchez-Muñoz de León & Marta Real-Fernández & Ignasi Navarro-Soria, 2021. "Implications of the Online Teaching Model Derived from the COVID-19 Lockdown Situation for Anxiety and Executive Functioning in Spanish Children and Adolescents," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(19), pages 1-15, October.
    4. Fei Qin & Yiqing Song & George P Nassis & Lina Zhao & Yanan Dong & Cuicui Zhao & Yiwei Feng & Jiexiu Zhao, 2020. "Physical Activity, Screen Time, and Emotional Well-Being during the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak in China," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 17(14), pages 1-16, July.
    5. Na-Hye Kim & Jung-Min Lee & Eunhye Yoo, 2022. "How the COVID-19 Pandemic Has Changed Adolescent Health: Physical Activity, Sleep, Obesity, and Mental Health," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(15), pages 1-12, July.
    6. Xinqiao Liu & Yifan Zhang & Wenjuan Gao & Xiaojie Cao, 2023. "Developmental trajectories of depression, anxiety, and stress among college students: a piecewise growth mixture model analysis," Palgrave Communications, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 10(1), pages 1-10, December.
    7. Gina Voss & Andreia F. Paiva & Alice Delerue Matos, 2021. "A Study of the Association between the Stringency of Covid-19 Government Measures and Depression in Older Adults across Europe and Israel," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(15), pages 1-12, July.
    8. Mateusz Ciski & Krzysztof Rząsa, 2023. "Multiscale Geographically Weighted Regression in the Investigation of Local COVID-19 Anomalies Based on Population Age Structure in Poland," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 20(10), pages 1-23, May.
    9. Andrea Alexander & Stephen Fung & Martin Eichler & Nadja Lehwald-Tywuschik & Vasuki Uthayakumar & Sami-Alexander Safi & Christian Vay & Hany Ashmawy & Sinan Kalmuk & Alexander Rehders & Sascha Vaghiri, 2022. "Quality of Life in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(6), pages 1-10, March.
    10. José Pais-Ribeiro & Alexandra Ferreira-Valente & Margarida Jarego & Elisabet Sánchez-Rodríguez & Jordi Miró, 2022. "COVID-19 Pandemic in Portugal: Psychosocial and Health-Related Factors Associated with Psychological Discomfort," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(6), pages 1-13, March.
    11. Alessandro Germani & Livia Buratta & Elisa Delvecchio & Claudia Mazzeschi, 2020. "Emerging Adults and COVID-19: The Role of Individualism-Collectivism on Perceived Risks and Psychological Maladjustment," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 17(10), pages 1-15, May.
    12. Joanna Baj-Korpak & Kamil Zaworski & Ewa Szymczuk & Andrei Shpakou, 2022. "Physical Activity and Mental Health of Medical Students from Poland and Belarus-Countries with Different Restrictive Approaches during the COVID-19 Pandemic," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(21), pages 1-15, October.
    13. Gülsen Erden & Asil Ali Özdoğru & Sami Çoksan & Hale Ögel-Balaban & Yakup Azak & İlkiz Altınoğlu-Dikmeer & Aysun Ergül-Topçu & Yeşim Yasak & Gözde Kıral-Uçar & Seda Oktay & Pelin Karaca-Dinç & Ezgi Di, 2022. "Social Contact, Academic Satisfaction, COVID-19 Knowledge, and Subjective Well-being Among Students at Turkish Universities: a Nine-University Sample," Applied Research in Quality of Life, Springer;International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies, vol. 17(4), pages 2017-2039, August.
    14. Mevlut Okan Aydin & Guven Ozkaya & Ilker Mustafa Kafa & Shafiul Haque & Zuleyha Alper, 2023. "Hopelessness among Medical Students Caused Due to COVID-19 Pandemic Linked Educational Hiatus: A Case Study of Bursa Uludag University, Türkiye," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 15(4), pages 1-15, February.
    15. Gregory Knell & Michael C. Robertson & Erin E. Dooley & Katie Burford & Karla S. Mendez, 2020. "Health Behavior Changes During COVID-19 Pandemic and Subsequent “Stay-at-Home” Orders," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 17(17), pages 1-16, August.
    16. Chunli Wei & Qingqing Li & Ziyi Lian & Yijun Luo & Shiqing Song & Hong Chen, 2022. "Variation in Public Trust, Perceived Societal Fairness, and Well-Being before and after COVID-19 Onset—Evidence from the China Family Panel Studies," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(19), pages 1-14, September.
    17. Edmond Pui Hang Choi & Bryant Pui Hung Hui & Eric Yuk Fai Wan & Jojo Yan Yan Kwok & Tiffany Hei Lam Tam & Chanchan Wu, 2021. "COVID-19 and Health-Related Quality of Life: A Community-Based Online Survey in Hong Kong," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(6), pages 1-12, March.
    18. Valerie Bauza & Gloria D. Sclar & Alokananda Bisoyi & Ajilé Owens & Apurva Ghugey & Thomas Clasen, 2021. "Experience of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Rural Odisha, India: Knowledge, Preventative Actions, and Impacts on Daily Life," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(6), pages 1-17, March.
    19. Antonio José Sánchez-Guarnido & Nuria Hidalgo & Jorge Arenas de la Cruz & Inmaculada Esteban & Silvia Mondón & Carlos Herruzo, 2021. "Analysis of the Consequences of the COVID-19 Pandemic on People with Severe Mental Disorders," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(16), pages 1-11, August.
    20. Mohamed Mekhemar & Sameh Attia & Christof Dörfer & Jonas Conrad, 2021. "Dental Nurses’ Mental Health in Germany: A Nationwide Survey during the COVID-19 Pandemic," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(15), pages 1-18, July.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jijerp:v:17:y:2020:i:16:p:5770-:d:396822. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: MDPI Indexing Manager (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.