IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Productivity Improvements in Education: A Replay


  • Dr. Maria Darra


Productivity is a measure of how well resources are utilized to produce output. It is defined as a ratio of outputs to inputs. Then to manage productivity is to achieve more outputs for the same inputs, usually measured in money terms or the same outputs for less input. The modern notion of productivity includes both organizational efficiency and effectiveness. In education outputs are principally represented by teaching, outcomes by learning. The definition of productivity should not be confused with efficiency and effectiveness. Effectiveness is a measure of the outcome of an operational unit like a school or a university department. It is a measure of how well an operational unit was able to accomplish its objective. Efficiency is a measure of the degree to which an operational unit utilizes appropriate resources in the right manner. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and critique the assumptions and developments of productivity measures, present productivity models with the main factors that affect behavioural and cognitive learning and to focus on the developments of productivity improvements in elementary, secondary and higher education.

Suggested Citation

  • Dr. Maria Darra, 2006. "Productivity Improvements in Education: A Replay," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(3-4), pages 101-101.
  • Handle: RePEc:ers:journl:v:ix:y:2006:i:3-4:p:101-

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Fernando Fernandez-Rodriguez & Simon Sosvilla-Rivero & Maria Dolores Garcia-Artiles, 1997. "Using nearest neighbour predictors to forecast the Spanish stock market," Investigaciones Economicas, FundaciĆ³n SEPI, vol. 21(1), pages 75-91, January.
    2. Freedman, David A & Peters, Stephen C, 1984. "Bootstrapping an Econometric Model: Some Empirical Results," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 2(2), pages 150-158, April.
    3. Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1988. "Permanent and Temporary Components of Stock Prices," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(2), pages 246-273, April.
    4. Muhannad A. Atmeh & Ian M. Dobbs, 2006. "Technical analysis and the stochastic properties of the Jordanian stock market index return," Studies in Economics and Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 23(2), pages 119-140, June.
    5. Keim, Donald B., 1983. "Size-related anomalies and stock return seasonality : Further empirical evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 13-32, June.
    6. Levich, Richard M. & Thomas, Lee III, 1993. "The significance of technical trading-rule profits in the foreign exchange market: a bootstrap approach," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(5), pages 451-474, October.
    7. Wing-Keung Wong & Meher Manzur & Boon-Kiat Chew, 2003. "How rewarding is technical analysis? Evidence from Singapore stock market," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(7), pages 543-551.
    8. Neftci, Salih N, 1991. "Naive Trading Rules in Financial Markets and Wiener-Kolmogorov Prediction Theory: A Study of "Technical Analysis."," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64(4), pages 549-571, October.
    9. Taylor, Mark P. & Allen, Helen, 1992. "The use of technical analysis in the foreign exchange market," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 304-314, June.
    10. Reinganum, Marc R., 1981. "Misspecification of capital asset pricing : Empirical anomalies based on earnings' yields and market values," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 19-46, March.
    11. Brock, William & Lakonishok, Josef & LeBaron, Blake, 1992. " Simple Technical Trading Rules and the Stochastic Properties of Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(5), pages 1731-1764, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Maria Darra, 2013. "Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction in Greek Primary Schools," International Journal of Economics & Business Administration (IJEBA), International Journal of Economics & Business Administration (IJEBA), vol. 0(4), pages 31-49.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I23 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Higher Education; Research Institutions


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ers:journl:v:ix:y:2006:i:3-4:p:101-. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Marios Agiomavritis). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.