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La agricultura y el bienestar nacional en el mundo

Listed author(s):
  • Bravo Ortega, Claudio

    (Universidad de Chile)

  • Lederman, Daniel

    (Banco Mundial)

Calculations of marginal welfare effects suggest that agricultural development has had important positive affects on national welfare, especially is developing countries. Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries have also benefited from agricultural growth, but non-agricultural production has had marginal welfare effects that are greater in magnitude to those provided by agricultural activities. The industrialized, high-income countries experienced positive marginal welfare gains from non-agricultural activities but negative affects from agriculture. These calculations of marginal welfare effects across regions depend on econometric estimates of elasticities linking agricultural and non-agricultural economic activities to four elements proposed in a theoretical nation welfare function: nation GDP per capita, average income of the poorest households within countries, environmental out comes concerning air and water pollution and deforestation, and macroeconomic volatility. The empirical models are estimated with various econometric techniques that deal with issues of causality and international heterogeneity.// Las estimaciones de los efectos marginales del bienestar sugieren que el desarrollo agrícola ha tenido importantes efectos positivos en el bienestar nacional, en particular en los países en desarrollo. Los países de la América Latina y del Caribe también se han beneficiado del crecimiento agrícola, pero la producción no agrícola también ha tenido efectos marginales de bienestar, cuya magnitud es mayor que los proporcionados por las actividades agrícolas. Los países industrializados de altos ingresos obtuvieron ganancias marginales positivas de sus actividades no agrícolas, pero los efectos de la agricultura son negativos. Estos cálculos de los efectos marginales de bienestar en las diferentes regiones dependen de estimaciones econométricas de las elasticidades que relacionan las actividades económicas agrícolas y no agrícolas con cuatro elementos propuestos en una función teórica del bienestar nacional: el PIB nacional per capita, el ingreso promedio de los hogares más pobres dentro de los países, los resultados ambientales en lo que se refiere a la contaminación del aire y del agua y la deforestación, y la volatilidad macroeconómica. Los modelos econométricos fueron estimados empleando varias técnicas econométricas que tratan de la causalidad y la heterogeneidad internacional.

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Article provided by Fondo de Cultura Económica in its journal El Trimestre Económico.

Volume (Year): LXXVI (3) (2009)
Issue (Month): 303 (julio-septiembre)
Pages: 557-617

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Handle: RePEc:elt:journl:v:76:y:2009:i:303:p:557-617
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