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Desigualdad salarial y desplazamientos de la demanda calificada en México, 1993-1999

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  • Ramírez Cruz, María Delfina

    (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)

Abstract

This article analyzes changes is skilled labor demand associated with economic liberalization in Mexico. A trend that has now become more evident is an increasing wage inequality that favors more highly skilled workers. Based on the application of Katz and Murphy’s supply and demand model (1992), I first found that Mexico seems to transit toward a comparative advantage with a moderately educated labor force. Second, the process of technological change and the growth of some manufacturing and service sectors, which have accompanied free trade and significant foreign and service sectors, which have accompanied free trade and significant foreign capital inflows, seem to favor technological learning processes coupled with a shift in demand to ward more highly skilled workers. During the period analyzed, the service sector seems not only to be the main job creator but also the key driver of the observed demand for greater skills. In summary, education has a crucial and an apparently increasing role in Mexico’s growing wage disparity.// En este artículo se analizan los cambios en la demanda calificada asociados con la liberación económica en México. Una modalidad reciente de la desigualdad salarial en México ha sido la visible desigualdad a favor de los asalariados calificados. Mediante la aplicación de un modelo de oferta y demanda se encuentra primero que México parece transitar hacia una ventaja comparativa en trabajo con calificación media. Segundo, el proceso de modernización tecnológica, la expansión de los sectores de manufactura y servicios y la apertura comercial con gran entrada de capital externo aparentemente favorecen trayectorias de aprendizaje tecnológico con desplazamientos de la demanda en favor del trabajo más calificado. En el periodo analizado el sector servicios se muestra como el más importante generador de empleo y el responsable principal de la creciente demanda calificada. En síntesis, la educación muestra un papel decisivo y en apariencia creciente en la desigualdad salarial en México.

Suggested Citation

  • Ramírez Cruz, María Delfina, 2004. "Desigualdad salarial y desplazamientos de la demanda calificada en México, 1993-1999," El Trimestre Económico, Fondo de Cultura Económica, vol. 0(283), pages 625-680, julio-sep.
  • Handle: RePEc:elt:journl:v:71:y:2004:i:283:p:625-680
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    Keywords

    demanda calificada; desigualdad salarial; liberación comercial; trabajo calificado; ventaja comparativa; aprendizaje tecnológico;

    JEL classification:

    • F11 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Neoclassical Models of Trade
    • F43 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Economic Growth of Open Economies
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials

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