IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

What Works Best for Whom? The Effects of Welfare and Work Policies by Race and Ethnicity


  • Charles Michalopoulos

    () (MDRC)


Using data from random assignment studies, this paper examines how welfare and work policies similar to those adopted by states since 1996 affected employment, welfare receipt, and income of white, African-American, and Hispanic welfare recipients. The results show little systematic variation in the effects of the programs across racial and ethnic groups. Earnings and welfare benefits were affected the most by programs that stressed employment but allowed people who lacked basic skills to initially enroll in education or training. Only programs that supplemented the earnings of welfare recipients who went to work increased income across the racial and ethnic groups.

Suggested Citation

  • Charles Michalopoulos, 2004. "What Works Best for Whom? The Effects of Welfare and Work Policies by Race and Ethnicity," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 30(1), pages 53-79, Winter.
  • Handle: RePEc:eej:eeconj:v:30:y:2004:i:1:p:53-79

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Howard Chernick & Cordelia Reimers, 2004. "The Decline in Welfare Receipt in New York City: Push vs. Pull," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 30(1), pages 3-29, Winter.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Crépon, Bruno & van den Berg, Gerard J., 2016. "Active Labor Market Policies," IZA Discussion Papers 10321, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    More about this item


    Earnings; Race; Racial; Welfare;

    JEL classification:

    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eej:eeconj:v:30:y:2004:i:1:p:53-79. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Victor Matheson, College of the Holy Cross). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.