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Correlates and consequences of internalized stigma for people living with mental illness: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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  • Livingston, James D.
  • Boyd, Jennifer E.

Abstract

An expansive body of research has investigated the experiences and adverse consequences of internalized stigma for people with mental illness. This article provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of the extant research regarding the empirical relationship between internalized stigma and a range of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and psychiatric variables for people who live with mental illness. An exhaustive review of the research literature was performed on all articles published in English that assessed a statistical relationship between internalized stigma and at least one other variable for adults who live with mental illness. In total, 127 articles met the inclusion criteria for systematic review, of which, data from 45 articles were extracted for meta-analyses. None of the sociodemographic variables that were included in the study were consistently or strongly correlated with levels of internalized stigma. The review uncovered a striking and robust negative relationship between internalized stigma and a range of psychosocial variables (e.g., hope, self-esteem, and empowerment). Regarding psychiatric variables, internalized stigma was positively associated with psychiatric symptom severity and negatively associated with treatment adherence. The review draws attention to the lack of longitudinal research in this area of study which has inhibited the clinical relevance of findings related to internalized stigma. The study also highlights the need for greater attention on disentangling the true nature of the relationship between internalized stigma and other psychosocial variables.

Suggested Citation

  • Livingston, James D. & Boyd, Jennifer E., 2010. "Correlates and consequences of internalized stigma for people living with mental illness: A systematic review and meta-analysis," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 71(12), pages 2150-2161, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:71:y:2010:i:12:p:2150-2161
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Prior, Lindsay & Wood, Fiona & Lewis, Glyn & Pill, Roisin, 2003. "Stigma revisited, disclosure of emotional problems in primary care consultations in Wales," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 56(10), pages 2191-2200, May.
    2. Yang, Lawrence Hsin & Kleinman, Arthur & Link, Bruce G. & Phelan, Jo C. & Lee, Sing & Good, Byron, 2007. "Culture and stigma: Adding moral experience to stigma theory," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 64(7), pages 1524-1535, April.
    3. Mak, Winnie W.S. & Poon, Cecilia Y.M. & Pun, Loraine Y.K. & Cheung, Shu Fai, 2007. "Meta-analysis of stigma and mental health," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 245-261, July.
    4. Link, Bruce & Castille, Dorothy M. & Stuber, Jennifer, 2008. "Stigma and coercion in the context of outpatient treatment for people with mental illnesses," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 67(3), pages 409-419, August.
    5. Parker, Richard & Aggleton, Peter, 2003. "HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: a conceptual framework and implications for action," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 13-24, July.
    6. Collins, Pamela Y. & von Unger, Hella & Armbrister, Adria, 2008. "Church ladies, good girls, and locas: Stigma and the intersection of gender, ethnicity, mental illness, and sexuality in relation to HIV risk," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 67(3), pages 389-397, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:socmed:v:197:y:2018:i:c:p:183-191 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Trani, Jean-Francois & Ballard, Ellis & Peña, Juan B., 2016. "Stigma of persons with disabilities in Afghanistan: Examining the pathways from stereotyping to mental distress," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 153(C), pages 258-265.
    3. repec:eee:socmed:v:181:y:2017:i:c:p:177-183 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Koschorke, Mirja & Padmavati, R. & Kumar, Shuba & Cohen, Alex & Weiss, Helen A. & Chatterjee, Sudipto & Pereira, Jesina & Naik, Smita & John, Sujit & Dabholkar, Hamid & Balaji, Madhumitha & Chavan, An, 2014. "Experiences of stigma and discrimination of people with schizophrenia in India," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 149-159.
    5. Bharadwaj, Prashant & Pai, Mallesh M. & Suziedelyte, Agne, 2017. "Mental health stigma," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 159(C), pages 57-60.
    6. Schrank, Beate & Bird, Victoria & Rudnick, Abraham & Slade, Mike, 2012. "Determinants, self-management strategies and interventions for hope in people with mental disorders: Systematic search and narrative review," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 74(4), pages 554-564.
    7. Easter, Michele M., 2012. "“Not all my fault”: Genetics, stigma, and personal responsibility for women with eating disorders," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 75(8), pages 1408-1416.
    8. repec:eee:socmed:v:196:y:2018:i:c:p:218-226 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. repec:eee:socmed:v:201:y:2018:i:c:p:1-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Kvaale, Erlend P. & Gottdiener, William H. & Haslam, Nick, 2013. "Biogenetic explanations and stigma: A meta-analytic review of associations among laypeople," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 95-103.
    11. Chen, Haide & Fang, Xiaoyi & Liu, Chaoying & Hu, Wei & Lan, Jing & Deng, Linyuan, 2014. "Associations among the number of mental health problems, stigma, and seeking help from psychological services: A path analysis model among Chinese adolescents," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 356-362.
    12. repec:eee:socmed:v:196:y:2018:i:c:p:209-215 is not listed on IDEAS

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