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Principal points of a multivariate mixture distribution


  • Matsuura, Shun
  • Kurata, Hiroshi


A set of n-principal points of a distribution is defined as a set of n points that optimally represent the distribution in terms of mean squared distance. It provides an optimal n-point-approximation of the distribution. However, it is in general difficult to find a set of principal points of a multivariate distribution. Tarpey et al. [T. Tarpey, L. Li, B. Flury, Principal points and self-consistent points of elliptical distributions, Ann. Statist. 23 (1995) 103-112] established a theorem which states that any set of n-principal points of an elliptically symmetric distribution is in the linear subspace spanned by some principal eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. This theorem, called a "principal subspace theorem", is a strong tool for the calculation of principal points. In practice, we often come across distributions consisting of several subgroups. Hence it is of interest to know whether the principal subspace theorem remains valid even under such complex distributions. In this paper, we define a multivariate location mixture model. A theorem is established that clarifies a linear subspace in which n-principal points exist.

Suggested Citation

  • Matsuura, Shun & Kurata, Hiroshi, 2011. "Principal points of a multivariate mixture distribution," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 102(2), pages 213-224, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jmvana:v:102:y:2011:i:2:p:213-224

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Thaddeus Tarpey, 1997. "Estimating principal points of univariate distributions," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(5), pages 499-512.
    2. Tarpey, Thaddeus, 1994. "Two principal points of symmetric, strongly unimodal distributions," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 253-257, July.
    3. Tarpey, Thaddeus, 2007. "Linear Transformations and the k-Means Clustering Algorithm: Applications to Clustering Curves," The American Statistician, American Statistical Association, vol. 61, pages 34-40, February.
    4. Tarpey, T., 1995. "Principal Points and Self-Consistent Points of Symmetrical Multivariate Distributions," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 39-51, April.
    5. Thaddeus Tarpey, 2007. "A parametric k-means algorithm," Computational Statistics, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 71-89, April.
    6. Kano, Y., 1994. "Consistency Property of Elliptic Probability Density Functions," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 139-147, October.
    7. Bali, Juan Lucas & Boente, Graciela, 2009. "Principal points and elliptical distributions from the multivariate setting to the functional case," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 79(17), pages 1858-1865, September.
    8. Yamamoto, Wataru & Shinozaki, Nobuo, 2000. "On uniqueness of two principal points for univariate location mixtures," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 33-42, January.
    9. Su, Yingcai, 1997. "On the Asymptotics of Quantizers in Two Dimensions," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 67-85, April.
    10. Li, Luning & Flury, Bernard, 1995. "Uniqueness of principal points for univariate distributions," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 323-327, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Loperfido, Nicola, 2014. "A note on the fourth cumulant of a finite mixture distribution," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 386-394.
    2. Shun Matsuura & Hiroshi Kurata, 2014. "Principal points for an allometric extension model," Statistical Papers, Springer, vol. 55(3), pages 853-870, August.
    3. Tarpey, Thaddeus & Loperfido, Nicola, 2015. "Self-consistency and a generalized principal subspace theorem," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 133(C), pages 27-37.


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