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Energy intensity, sectoral activity, and structural change in the Norwegian economy

Author

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  • Schipper, L.
  • Howarth, R.
  • Carlassare, E.

Abstract

We analyze energy-use patterns since 1950 in the residential, service, manufacturing, and transportation sectors of the Norwegian economy, concentrating on changes in energy intensity, sectoral activity, and sectoral structure between 1973 and 1987. In most sectors, energy intensity has increased since the 1973 oil shock, even though the total energy-to-GDP ratio has decreased over the same period. Energy efficiency has not improved as much in Norway as in the other OECD countries. There are several reasons for this. First, electricity has been inexpensive and Norway is a net oil exporter. The income from oil development in Norway, in response to the oil shocks of the 1970s, resulted in energy-use increases while other nations responded by reducing energy utilization. A more subtle factor is that the use of energy in Norway is reaching maturity in most sectors as the ownership of principal energy-using equipment saturates. If changes in energy policy were put into place to increase the price of electricity in Norway, the energy efficiency of the economy could improve dramatically in the future.

Suggested Citation

  • Schipper, L. & Howarth, R. & Carlassare, E., 1992. "Energy intensity, sectoral activity, and structural change in the Norwegian economy," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 215-233.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:17:y:1992:i:3:p:215-233
    DOI: 10.1016/0360-5442(92)90050-A
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Greening, Lorna A. & Davis, William B. & Schipper, Lee, 1998. "Decomposition of aggregate carbon intensity for the manufacturing sector: comparison of declining trends from 10 OECD countries for the period 1971-1991," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 43-65, February.
    2. Schmitt, William F. & Szklo, Alexandre & Schaeffer, Roberto, 2011. "Policies for improving the efficiency of the Brazilian light-duty vehicle fleet and their implications for fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 3163-3176, June.
    3. Serrenho, André Cabrera & Sousa, Tânia & Warr, Benjamin & Ayres, Robert U. & Domingos, Tiago, 2014. "Decomposition of useful work intensity: The EU (European Union)-15 countries from 1960 to 2009," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 704-715.
    4. Luukkanen, Jyrki & Kaivo-oja, Jari, 2002. "ASEAN tigers and sustainability of energy use--decomposition analysis of energy and CO2 efficiency dynamics," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 281-292, March.
    5. Luukkanen, J. & Kaivo-oja, J., 2002. "A comparison of Nordic energy and CO2 intensity dynamics in the years 1960–1997," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 135-150.
    6. Farla, Jacco & Cuelenaere11, Rob & Blok, Kornelis, 1998. "Energy efficiency and structural change in the Netherlands, 1980-1990," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 1-28, February.
    7. Kaivo-oja, Jari & Luukkanen, Jyrki, 2004. "The European Union balancing between CO2 reduction commitments and growth policies: decomposition analyses," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(13), pages 1511-1530, September.
    8. Greening, Lorna A. & Davis, William B. & Schipper, Lee & Khrushch, Marta, 1997. "Comparison of six decomposition methods: application to aggregate energy intensity for manufacturing in 10 OECD countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 375-390, July.
    9. Unander, Fridtjof & Karbuz, Sohbet & Schipper, Lee & Khrushch, Marta & Ting, Michael, 1999. "Manufacturing energy use in OECD countries: decomposition of long-term trends," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(13), pages 769-778, November.
    10. Unander, Fridtjof & Ettestol, Ingunn & Ting, Mike & Schipper, Lee, 2004. "Residential energy use: an international perspective on long-term trends in Denmark, Norway and Sweden," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(12), pages 1395-1404, August.

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