Nonstationary nonlinear heteroskedasticity in regression
This paper considers the regression with errors having nonstationary nonlinear heteroskedasticity. For both the usual stationary regression and the nonstationary cointegrating regression, we develop the asymptotic theories for the least squares methods in the presence of conditional heterogeneity given as a nonlinear function of an integrated process. In particular, it is shown that the nonstationarity of volatility in the regression errors may induce spuriousness of the underlying regression. This is true for both the usual stationary regression and the nonstationary cointegrating regression, if excessive nonstationary volatility is present in the errors. Mild nonstationary volatilities do not render the underlying regression spurious. However, their presence makes the least squares estimator asymptotically biased and inefficient and the usual chi-square test invalid. In the paper, we develop an unbiased and efficient method of estimation and a chi-square test applicable for the regression with mild nonstationary volatilities in the errors. We provide some illustrations to demonstrate the empirical relevancy of the model and theory developed in the paper. For this purpose, examined are US consumption function, EURO/USD forward-spot spreads and capital-asset pricing models for some major NYSE stocks
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