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Modelling and optimization of the firing zone of a tunnel kiln to predict the optimal feed locations and mass fluxes of the fuel and secondary air


  • Kaya, Sinem
  • Mançuhan, Ebru
  • Küçükada, Kurtul


Optimization of the firing zone was done to minimize the fuel cost as being the objective function by finding the optimal operating variables. These variables are the initial admixed coal (AC) in the brick body, the mass flux and locations of pulverized coal (PC) and the secondary air required for complete combustion. The constraints are the carbon coming from the AC which increases the porosity of the bricks, and should be consumed completely. Two other constraints to avoid thermal shock are the temperature difference between bricks and air, and the maximum heating rate of the bricks. The results were compared to the plant data.

Suggested Citation

  • Kaya, Sinem & Mançuhan, Ebru & Küçükada, Kurtul, 2009. "Modelling and optimization of the firing zone of a tunnel kiln to predict the optimal feed locations and mass fluxes of the fuel and secondary air," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 86(3), pages 325-332, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:86:y:2009:i:3:p:325-332

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hepbasli, Arif, 2008. "A key review on exergetic analysis and assessment of renewable energy resources for a sustainable future," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 593-661, April.
    2. Joshi, Anand S. & Tiwari, Arvind, 2007. "Energy and exergy efficiencies of a hybrid photovoltaic–thermal (PV/T) air collector," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 32(13), pages 2223-2241.
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    Cited by:

    1. Bahadori, Alireza & Vuthaluru, Hari B., 2010. "Novel predictive tools for design of radiant and convective sections of direct fired heaters," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(7), pages 2194-2202, July.


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