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Russland und die Ukraine: Zwei neue Global Player auf dem Weizenmarkt

  • Johannes Findeis
  • Linde Götz
  • Heinrich Hockmann
  • Oleksandr Perekhozhuk

Russia and Ukraine have established themselves in recent years as the top 10 exporters of wheat in the world. Both countries also have not reached their full production potential. Russia and Ukraine could double their current export volumes by increasing the soil productivity, as well as the utilization of land, abandoned since early 90s. However, this requires institutional reforms that help the agribusiness companies respond better to market signals. The export subsidies in both countries in recent years tended to have a dampening effect on the rise in world wheat prices. Accordingly, the export restrictions in Russia and Ukraine which created the price spikes in global wheat markets are of great importance to research, as they were accompanied by an increase in price volatility. Due to the fact that there are different country-specific export prices, there should be a country-specific comparison conducted, which would contribute to an argument that in Russia's main export regions (Caucasus and Mashreq), price discrimination is exercised. Russland und die Ukraine haben sich in den letzten Jahren in den TOP 10 der Weizenexporteure etabliert. Beide Länder verfügen zudem noch über nicht ausgeschöpfte Produktionspotenziale. Russland und die Ukraine könnten ihre aktuellen Exportmengen durch eine Erhöhung der Bodenproduktivität sowie durch die Rekultivierung der seit Beginn der 90er Jahre brachgefallenen Flächen mehr als verdoppeln. Dies erfordert allerdings institutionelle Reformen, die dazu beitragen, dass die Unternehmen in der Landwirtschaft und der Agrarindustrie verstärkt auf Marktsignale reagieren. Die Exportbeiträge beider Länder hatten in den letzten Jahren tendenziell einen dämpfenden Effekt auf den Anstieg der Weltmarktpreise für Weizen. Dementsprechend sind die Exportrestriktionen Russlands und der Ukraine von großer Bedeutung für das Entstehen der Preisspitzen auf den Weltweizenmärkten, die von einem Anstieg der Preisvolatilität begleitet werden. Ein Vergleich der länderspezifischen Exportpreise legt darüber hinaus den Schluss nahe, dass Russland in den Hauptabsatzregionen (Kaukasus und Maschrek) in der Lage ist, durch Preisdiskriminierung seine marktbeherrschende Position auszunutzen.

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Article provided by DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research in its journal Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung.

Volume (Year): 81 (2012)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 47-62

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Handle: RePEc:diw:diwvjh:81-4-4
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