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Environmental and trade policies: some methodological lessons


  • Smith, V. Kerry
  • Espinosa, J. Andrès


This paper provides an overview of recent research on the interconnections between environmental and trade policies. It describes how the assumptions of these models can be important to the conclusions derived on the gains from coordination. The Harrison–Rutherford–Wooton CGE model of the European Union is used to illustrate the importance of these issues. This model was extended to include three air pollutants and their health effects as non-separable influences on household preferences in each region described by the model. The results suggest that the conventional assumption of separability in preferences between marketed and non-marketed goods is central to conclusions about the importance of coordination of these policies.

Suggested Citation

  • Smith, V. Kerry & Espinosa, J. Andrès, 1996. "Environmental and trade policies: some methodological lessons," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 1(01), pages 19-40, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:endeec:v:1:y:1996:i:01:p:19-40_00

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Lopez Ramon, 1994. "The Environment as a Factor of Production: The Effects of Economic Growth and Trade Liberalization," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 163-184, September.
    2. James E. Anderson & J. Peter Neary, 1996. "A New Approach to Evaluating Trade Policy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 63(1), pages 107-125.
    3. Harrison, Glenn W & Rutherford, Thomas F & Wooton, Ian, 1991. "An Empirical Database for a General Equilibrium Model of the European Communities," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 16(1), pages 95-120.
    4. Chichilnisky, Graciela, 1994. "North-South Trade and the Global Environment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 851-874, September.
    5. Hazilla, Michael & Kopp, Raymond J, 1990. "Social Cost of Environmental Quality Regulations: A General Equilibrium Analysis," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(4), pages 853-873, August.
    6. Ballard, Charles L. & Medema, Steven G., 1993. "The marginal efficiency effects of taxes and subsidies in the presence of externalities : A computational general equilibrium approach," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 199-216, September.
    7. J. Andrès Espinosa & V. Kerry Smith, 1995. "Measuring the Environmental Consequences of Trade Policy: A Nonmarket CGE Analysis," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 77(3), pages 772-777.
    8. Anderson, James E & Neary, J Peter, 1992. "Trade Reform with Quotas, Partial Rent Retention, and Tariffs," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(1), pages 57-76, January.
    9. Pollak, Robert A & Wales, Terence J, 1981. "Demographic Variables in Demand Analysis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1533-1551, November.
    10. Oates, Wallace E & Portney, Paul R & McGartland, Albert M, 1989. "The Net Benefits of Incentive-Based Regulation: A Case Study of Environmental Standard Setting," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(5), pages 1233-1242, December.
    11. Copeland Brian R., 1994. "International Trade and the Environment: Policy Reform in a Polluted Small Open Economy," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 44-65, January.
    12. Krutilla, Kerry, 1991. "Environmental regulation in an open economy," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 127-142, March.
    13. Boyd Roy & Krutilla Kerry & Viscusi W. Kip, 1995. "Energy Taxation as a Policy Instrument to Reduce CO2 Emissions: A Net Benefit Analysis," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 1-24, July.
    14. Lopez, Ramon & Niklitschek, Mario, 1991. "Dual economic growth in poor tropical areas," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 189-211, October.
    15. Bergstrom, Theodore & Blume, Lawrence & Varian, Hal, 1986. "On the private provision of public goods," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 25-49, February.
    16. Edward Barbier & Michael Rauscher, 1994. "Trade, tropical deforestation and policy interventions," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 4(1), pages 75-90, February.
    17. Lluch, Constantino & Powell, Alan, 1975. "International comparisons of expenditure patterns," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 275-303, July.
    18. Harrison, Glenn W & Rutherford, Thomas F & Wooton, Ian, 1989. "The Economic Impact of the European Community," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(2), pages 288-294, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Calmette, Marie-Francoise & Pechoux, Isabelle, 2007. "Are environmental policies counterproductive?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 186-191, May.
    2. Theodore Panayotou, 2000. "Globalization and Environment," CID Working Papers 53, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
    3. Smith, V. Kerry, 1996. "Environmental costing: Experience and prospects," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 333-345, December.
    4. Holger Sieg & V. Kerry Smith & H. Spencer Banzhaf & Randy Walsh, 2000. "Estimating the General Equilibrium Benefits of Large Policy Changes: The Clean Air Act Revisited," NBER Working Papers 7744, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Theodore Panayotou, 2000. "Globalization and Environment," CID Working Papers 53A, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
    6. Larson, Bruce A. & Nicolaides, Eri & Al Zu'bi, Bashir & Sukkar, Nabil & Laraki, Karim & Matoussi, Mohamed Salah & Zaim, Katalin & Chouchani, Carol, 2002. "The Impact of Environmental Regulations on Exports: Case Study Results from Cyprus, Jordan, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, and Turkey," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 1057-1072, June.
    7. Smith, V. Kerry & Van Houtven, George & Pattanayak, Subhrendu, 1999. "Benefit Transfer as Preference Calibration," Discussion Papers dp-99-36, Resources For the Future.
    8. Huang, Ju-Chin & Kerry Smith, V., 1998. "Weak complementarity and production," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 60(3), pages 329-333, September.
    9. Isabelle Morin & Jared Creason & Michael Fisher & Susan F. Stone, 2005. "Comparison of the Environmental Impacts of Trade and Domestic Distortions in the United States," NCEE Working Paper Series 200506, National Center for Environmental Economics, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, revised Jun 2005.
    10. Smith, Kerry & Schwabe, Kurt A. & Mansfield, Carol, 1997. "Does Nature Limit Environmental Federalism?," Working Papers 97-01, Duke University, Department of Economics.
    11. Larson, Bruce A., 2002. "European Union Environmental Policies And Imports Of Agricultural Products From The United States," 2002 Annual meeting, July 28-31, Long Beach, CA 19613, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    12. Haixiao Huang, Walter C. Labys, 2002. "Environment and trade: a review of issues and methods," International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 2(1/2), pages 100-160.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • Q20 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - General
    • H41 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods - - - Public Goods


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