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The Gender Pay Gap in Research :A Comparison of 23 European Countries


  • Sîle O'Dorchai


The gender wage gap is in a sense the final and most synthetic indicator of all inequalities between male and female researchers that structure the labour market. Even though research generally concerns the most highly educated fragment of the workforce, of all countries observed in She Figures (EC 2009), there is none where female wages are equal to men’s, despite the almost universal existence of legislation to impose gender wage equality. This paper will use European Structure of Earnings data for 2006 for 23 European countries (BE, BG, CY, CZ, DE, EE, ES, FI, FR, EL, HU, IT, LT, LU, LV, NL, PL, PT, RO, SE, NO, SK, UK) to compute the gender pay gap within three occupational groups in private and public enterprise and for different age groups (14-19 years, 20-29 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 year, 50-59 years and 60+ years) and working hours (part-time versus full-time). The first group selected relates to decision-making occupations (ISCO 100 – Legislators, senior officials and managers). The second group refers to “Professional” occupations (ISCO 200) and the third to “Technical and Associate Professional” occupations (ISCO 300). To sum up, this analysis will test whether the gender pay gap is wider in those occupations that are most open to high-level female researchers, whether it is smaller in public enterprise and in full-time research jobs, and whether it widens as researchers’ age increases in which case it illustrates either the workings of a glass ceiling that women hit during their ascent in the occupational hierarchy or a generation effect.

Suggested Citation

  • Sîle O'Dorchai, 2011. "The Gender Pay Gap in Research :A Comparison of 23 European Countries," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 54(2-3), pages 237-275.
  • Handle: RePEc:bxr:bxrceb:2013/108951 Note: Special Issue "Beyond the leaky pipeline - Challenges for research on Gender on Science" Guest Editors :Maria Caprile, Danièle Meulders, Sile O'Dorchai and Nuria Vallès

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Eichengreen, Barry & Arteta, Carlos, 2000. "Banking Crises in Emerging Markets: Presumptions and Evidence," Center for International and Development Economics Research, Working Paper Series qt3pk9t1h2, Center for International and Development Economics Research, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
    2. Paul Louis Ceriel Hilbers & Alfredo Mario Leone & Mahinder Singh Gill & Owen Evens, 2000. "Macroprudential Indicators of Financial System Soundness," IMF Occasional Papers 192, International Monetary Fund.
    3. International Monetary Fund, 1998. "Leading Indicators of Banking Crises; Was Asia Different?," IMF Working Papers 98/91, International Monetary Fund.
    4. Honohan, Patrick & Klingebiel, Daniela, 2000. "Controlling the fiscal costs of banking crises," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2441, The World Bank.
    5. Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Enrica Detragiache, 1998. "The Determinants of Banking Crises in Developing and Developed Countries," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 45(1), pages 81-109, March.
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    More about this item


    Gender; Science and Research; Wage Gap;

    JEL classification:

    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination


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