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Tariffs, Entry Regulation and Markups: Country Size Matters


  • Hoekman Bernard

    () (The World Bank and CEPR)

  • Kee Hiau Looi

    () (The World Bank)

  • Olarreaga Marcelo

    () (The World Bank and CEPR)


Actual and potential competition is a powerful source of discipline on the pricing behavior of firms. This paper extends the empirical literature on the pro-competitive impact of policy reforms by investigating the effects on price markups of barriers to both domestic and foreign entry in a sample of developed and developing countries. While both are found to be important determinants of industry markups, we find that country size affects the impact of tariffs and domestic entry regulation. Country size dampens the impact of the former and strengthens the effect of the latter.

Suggested Citation

  • Hoekman Bernard & Kee Hiau Looi & Olarreaga Marcelo, 2004. "Tariffs, Entry Regulation and Markups: Country Size Matters," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 4(1), pages 1-24, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:bpj:bejmac:v:contributions.4:y:2004:i:1:n:8

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Benhabib Jess & Perli Roberto, 1994. "Uniqueness and Indeterminacy: On the Dynamics of Endogenous Growth," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 113-142, June.
    2. Casey B. Mulligan & Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1993. "Transitional Dynamics in Two-Sector Models of Endogenous Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(3), pages 739-773.
    3. Xie Danyang, 1994. "Divergence in Economic Performance: Transitional Dynamics with Multiple Equilibria," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 97-112, June.
    4. Caballe, Jordi & Santos, Manuel S, 1993. "On Endogenous Growth with Physical and Human Capital," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(6), pages 1042-1067, December.
    5. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Bekkers, Eddy & Francois, Joseph, 2013. "Trade and industrial structure with large firms and heterogeneity," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 69-90.
    2. Dobrinsky, Rumen & Korosi, Gabor & Markov, Nikolay & Halpern, Laszlo, 2006. "Price markups and returns to scale in imperfect markets: Bulgaria and Hungary," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 92-110, March.
    3. Ma, Tay-Cheng, 2010. "Competition authority independence, antitrust effectiveness, and institutions," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 226-235, September.
    4. Harald Badinger, 2008. "Cross-country evidence on the productivity effects of trade: the role of competition and country size," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(9), pages 671-675.
    5. Daniel Ortega & Francisco Rodríguez, 2005. "Trade Policy and Factor Prices: An Empirical Strategy," Wesleyan Economics Working Papers 2005-004, Wesleyan University, Department of Economics.
    6. Kotsios, Panayotis, 2010. "Regulatory Barriers to Entry in Industrial Sectors," MPRA Paper 27976, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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