Access to Improved Water Sources and Rural Productivity: Analytical Framework and Cross-country Evidence
In this paper we address the issue of access to drinking water in rural areas related to the productivity of the agricultural workforce. Considering an agricultural household model as our basic conceptual framework, we analyze the theoretical aspects of increasing the access rate to drinking water on the productivity of the agricultural workforce. First, we show that the increased access rate to drinking water is conducive to agricultural productivity due to increased intrinsic productivity of individuals and additional gain in time for agricultural production. Second, it comes out that the constraints on the access to drinking water may be costly costs in terms of decreased productivity and well-being of rural people. Moreover, the results of econometric estimates do not reject our theoretical implications. On a sample of 27 African countries, these results show mainly that access to clean water improves agricultural productivity. This positive effect is reinforced by the presence of a better sanitation system, even after controlling for country-specific effects and for the characteristics of rural areas. Nous abordons la question de l’accès à l’eau potable en milieu rural en relation avec la productivité de la main d’œuvre agricole. Sur la base du cadre d’analyse des ménages agricoles, nous analysons les aspects théoriques des effets d’un accroissement du taux d’accès à l’eau potable sur la productivité de la main d’œuvre agricole. En premier lieu, nous montrons qu'une augmentation du taux d'accès à l’eau potable est propice à la productivité agricole du fait de l'accroissement de la productivité intrinsèque des individus et du gain additionnel de temps pour la production agricole. D’autre part, il ressort que les contraintes d’accès à l’eau potable sont susceptibles d’imposer des coûts en termes de baisse de productivité et de bien-être aux populations rurales. En outre, les résultats économétriques ne rejettent pas ces arguments théoriques. Sur un échantillon de
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Volume (Year): 24 (2012)
Issue (Month): 2 (06)
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