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Wem wird gegeben? Matthäus-Effekte und geschlechtsspezifische Ungleichheiten auf dem Arbeitsmarkt für Filmschauspieler

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  • Lutter, Mark
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    Abstract

    Reputation und Erfolgsanhäufungen spielen insbesondere in der postfordistischen Arbeitswelt eine bedeutsame Rolle. Das multiplikative Zusammenwirken zwischen derartigen 'Matthäus-Effekten' und geschlechtsspezifischen Ungleichheiten ist allerdings bislang kaum Gegenstand soziologischer Forschung gewesen. Folglich ist unklar, wie sich kumulierte berufliche Erfolge im Zeitverlauf auf Karriereungleichheiten zwischen den Geschlechtern auswirken. Verstärkt der Matthäuseffekt bestehende Genderdisparitäten? Oder hebelt er sie aus? Mithilfe eines Längsschnittdatensatzes, der vollständige Karriereverläufe von 8.146 deutschsprachigen Schauspielern im Zeitraum zwischen 1900 und 2010 erfasst, wird gezeigt, dass sich Erfolgsakkumulationen für Frauen vorteilhaft auswirken. Insgesamt bestehen zwar deutliche geschlechtsspezifische Ungleichheiten - Frauen haben signifikant schlechtere Chancen als Männer -, diese nivellieren sich jedoch mit der Anhäufung von Filmpreisen auf ein statistisch nicht mehr von null zu unterscheidendes Niveau. Die Ursachen könnten mit der über Erfolg gesteigerten Aufmerksamkeit zusammenhängen, die imstande ist, Opportunitäten für Benachteiligungen zu reduzieren. -- Reputation and cumulative advantages play an important role in the post-Fordian world of labor. Since multiplicative effects between these 'Matthew effects' and gender inequality have not received much attention in sociology, little is known about the impact of cumulative advantages on gender inequality over the course of a career. Does the Matthew effect intensify gender disadvantages, or does it cancel them out? Using a panel dataset covering the period from 1900 to 2010 which contains full career profiles of 8,146 German film actors, the study shows that the accumulation of success has a positive effect on women's career opportunities. Although female actors generally have less opportunity for career success than men, they compensate for this disparity greatly by making a name for themselves, especially by winning awards. The reason for this could be that the increased attention accorded to successful actors reduces the chances of their being treated unfairly.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies in its series MPIfG Discussion Paper with number 12/8.

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    Date of creation: 2012
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:mpifgd:128

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    1. Banerjee, Abhijit V, 1992. "A Simple Model of Herd Behavior," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 107(3), pages 797-817, August.
    2. Booth, Alison L. & Francesconi, Marco & Frank, Jeff, 2003. "A sticky floors model of promotion, pay, and gender," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 295-322, April.
    3. Petersen, Trond & Togstad, Thea, 2006. "Getting the Offer: Sex Discrimation in Hiring," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt1rt913mg, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
    4. Elke Holst & Anne Busch, 2009. "Der "Gender Pay Gap" in Führungspositionen der Privatwirtschaft in Deutschland," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 169, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    5. Ezra W. Zuckerman & Tai-Young Kim, 2003. "The critical trade-off: identity assignment and box-office success in the feature film industry," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 12(1), pages 27-67, February.
    6. Rosen, Sherwin, 1981. "The Economics of Superstars," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(5), pages 845-58, December.
    7. Adler, Moshe, 1985. "Stardom and Talent," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(1), pages 208-12, March.
    8. Achatz, Juliane & Gartner, Hermann & Glück, Timea, 2004. "Bonus oder Bias? Mechanismen geschlechtsspezifischer Entlohnung," IAB Discussion Paper 200402, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
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