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Wohlfahrtseffekte von Rüstungs- und Raumfahrtausgaben: Das Beispiel der Vereinigten Staaten

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  • Glismann, Hans H.
  • Horn, Ernst-Jürgen
  • Schrader, Klaus
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    Abstract

    Gemessen an den gesamten Staatsausgaben oder am Sozialprodukt haben die Ausgaben für Rüstung in den meisten hochentwickelten und auch weniger entwickelten Ländern einen beträchtlichen Stellenwert. Dies gilt zwar nicht für Raumfahrtausgaben, doch zeigt das Beispiel der Vereinigten Staaten, daß Raumfahrt- und Rüstungsaktivitäten in einem technologisch führenden Land eng miteinander verwoben und auch statistisch nur schwer voneinander zu trennen sind. Die Bedeutung der Rüstungs- und Raumfahrtausgaben wird aber auch aus den indirekten Effekten dieser Ausgaben abgeleitet: So wird seit vielen Jahrzehnten versucht, Investitionen in bestimmte Rüstungs- und Raumfahrtprojekte mit ihren positiven Nebeneffekten (den sogenannten "spin-offs") zu begründen, statt mit ihrem eigentlichen Zweck, nämlich der Herstellung von äußerer Sicherheit. Im Zuge der jüngsten Kürzungen im Rüstungs- und Raumfahrtbudget der Vereinigten Staaten und in anderen Ländern hat das Thema der Auswirkungen von Rüstungs- und Raumfahrtausgaben keineswegs an Bedeutung verloren, geht es doch jetzt darum, die Folgen eines Rüstungsabbaus abzuschätzen und die Möglichkeiten einer Konversion militärisch ausgerichteter Betriebe zu erkunden. In der vorliegenden Studie analysieren die Autoren die Wirkungen von Rüstungsund Raumfahrtausgaben in den Vereinigten Staaten. Sie versuchen, die "spin-offs" dieser Ausgaben auf Unternehmens- und Sektorebene sowie anhand gesamtwirtschaftlicher Daten statistisch nachzuweisen. Außerdem wird die internationale Verflechtung im Handel mit Waffen und mit Lizenzen zur Waffenproduktion untersucht. Darauf aufbauend wird die industriepolitische Relevanz der Rüstungs- und Raumfahrtaktivitäten diskutiert, die vielfach auch in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland – spätestens seit dem Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm/Daimler-Benz-Verfahren und dem entsprechenden Gutachten der Monopolkommission – als beträchtlich angesehen wird. --

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    Paper provided by Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW) in its series Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy with number 783.

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    Date of creation: 1993
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:ifwkie:783

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