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Globalization, EU Enlargement and Income Distribution

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  • Fritz Breuss

    (wifo)

Abstract

Advanced industrial countries have been exhibiting a steady decline of the labor income shares in the last two decades. We explain this phenomenon by resorting to the old Stolper-Samuelson theorem. The conclusions concerning the impact of free trade on the income distribution are unambiguous in a Heckscher-Ohlin world with two countries, two goods and two factors of production (capital and labor). In contrast, the consequences of FDI from the capital abundant country (EU) to the labor abundant CEEC are ambiguous. Both scenarios are investigated theoretically and then simulated with a hypothetical two country CGE model, including the EU and the CEEC. A panel regression for both regions separately, helps to decide empirically which influences on the development of the labor income shares are at work. Globalization, measured by revealed comparative advantage (increase in global net trade) has contributed to a decline in the labor income shares in the EU. Additionally, those countries which are engaged more in trade with the CEEC can expect a sharper decline in the wage share. Global net FDI outflow also exerts a negative influence on the labor income share in the EU. In the CEEC the increase in global net trade had a positive influence on the labor income share, trade with the EU, however, dampened the labor income share. FDI inflow increased the labor income share in the CEEC.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by FIW in its series FIW Working Paper series with number 008.

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Length: 25
Date of creation: Oct 2007
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Handle: RePEc:wsr:wpaper:y:2007:i:008

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Keywords: Eu; EU27; Globalization; EU Enlargement; Income Distribution;

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References

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  1. Adrian Wood, 2002. "Globalization and wage inequalities: A synthesis of three theories," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 138(1), pages 54-82, March.
  2. Egger, Peter & Larch, Mario & Pfaffermayr, Michael, 2007. "On the welfare effects of trade and investment liberalization," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 669-694, April.
  3. James R. Markusen, 2004. "Multinational Firms and the Theory of International Trade," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262633078, January.
  4. Özlem Onaran & Engelbert Stockhammer, 2006. "The effect of FDI and foreign trade on wages in the Central and Eastern European Countries in the post-transition era: A sectoral analysis," Department of Economics Working Papers wuwp094, Vienna University of Economics, Department of Economics.
  5. Hartmut Egger & Peter Egger, 2002. "How international outsourcing drives up Eastern European wages," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 138(1), pages 83-96, March.
  6. Peter Egger & Mario Larch & Michael Pfaffermayr, 2007. "Bilateral versus Multilateral Trade and Investment Liberalisation," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(4), pages 567-596, 04.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Özlem Onaran, 2008. "The effect of import penetration on labor market outcomes in Austrian manufacturing industry," Department of Economics Working Papers wuwp119, Vienna University of Economics, Department of Economics.
  2. Fritz Breuss, 2009. "An evaluation of the EU's Fifth Enlargement With special focus on Bulgaria and Romania," European Economy - Economic Papers 361, Directorate General Economic and Monetary Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
  3. �zlem Onaran, 2012. "The Effect of Foreign Affiliate Employment on Wages, Employment, and the Wage Share in Austria," Review of Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(2), pages 251-271, April.
  4. Özlem Onaran, 2008. "The Effects of Globalization on Wages, Employment, and Wage Share in Austria," Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft - WuG, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik, vol. 34(3), pages 337-360.
  5. Engelbert Stockhammer & Stefan Ederer, 2007. "Demand effects of the falling wage share in Austria," Department of Economics Working Papers wuwp106, Vienna University of Economics, Department of Economics.
  6. Alfred Greiner, 2011. "Economic Growth, Public Debt and Welfare: Comparing Three Budgetary Rules," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 12(2), pages 205-222, 05.

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