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On modeling pollution-generating technologies

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  • Murty, Sushama

    (Department of Economics, University of Warwick)

  • Russell, R. Robert

    (Department of Economics, University of California, Riverside)

Abstract

We distinguish between intended production and residual generation and introduce the concept of by-production. We show that by-production provides the fundamental explanation for the positive correlation that is observed between intended production and residual generation. Most of the existing literature attributes the observed positive correlation to abatement options available to firms. We show that abatement options of firms add to the phenomenon of by-production in strengthening the observed positive correlation. The existing literature usually does not explicitly model abatement options of firms, but considers a reduced form of he technology, which satisfies standard disposability assumptions with respect to all inputs and intended outputs. We show that more than one implicit production relation is needed to capture all the technological trade-offs that are implied by by-production. From our model, we are able to derive a reduced form of the technology that is in the spirit of the one that is usually studied in the literature. However, we nd that our reduced form technology violates standard disposability with respect to inputs and intended outputs that cause pollution. We derive implications from the phenomenon of by-production for the econometric and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) speci cations of pollution-generating technologies. We derive a DEA specification of technologies that satisfy by-production. Such a specification can be used to study issues relating to measurement of efficiency, marginal abatement costs, productivity, etc., of firms with technologies that generate pollution. JEL Codes: D20 ; D24 ; D62 ; Q50

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Warwick, Department of Economics in its series The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) with number 931.

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Date of creation: 2010
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Handle: RePEc:wrk:warwec:931

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Keywords: pollution-generating technologies ; free disposability ; weak disposability ; data envelope analysis ; technical efficiency measurement;

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References

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  1. Hailu, Atakelty & Veeman, Terrence S., 2000. "Environmentally Sensitive Productivity Analysis of the Canadian Pulp and Paper Industry, 1959-1994: An Input Distance Function Approach," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 251-274, November.
  2. Pittman, Russell W, 1983. "Multilateral Productivity Comparisons with Undesirable Outputs," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 93(372), pages 883-91, December.
  3. Barbera, Anthony J. & McConnell, Virginia D., 1990. "The impact of environmental regulations on industry productivity: Direct and indirect effects," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 50-65, January.
  4. Coggins, Jay S. & Swinton, John R., 1996. "The Price of Pollution: A Dual Approach to Valuing SO2Allowances," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 58-72, January.
  5. Boyd, Gale A. & McClelland, John D., 1999. "The Impact of Environmental Constraints on Productivity Improvement in Integrated Paper Plants," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 121-142, September.
  6. Murty, M.N. & Kumar, Surender, 2002. "Measuring the cost of environmentally sustainable industrial development in India: a distance function approach," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(03), pages 467-486, July.
  7. Sushama Murty & R. Robert Russell, 2005. "Externality Policy Reform: A General Equilibrium Analysis," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 7(1), pages 117-150, 02.
  8. Fare, Rolf & Grosskopf, Shawna & Noh, Dong-Woon & Weber, William, 2005. "Characteristics of a polluting technology: theory and practice," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(2), pages 469-492, June.
  9. Cropper, Maureen L & Oates, Wallace E, 1992. "Environmental Economics: A Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(2), pages 675-740, June.
  10. Zhou, P. & Ang, B.W. & Poh, K.L., 2008. "A survey of data envelopment analysis in energy and environmental studies," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 189(1), pages 1-18, August.
  11. Fare, R. & Grosskopf, S. & Pasurka, C., 1986. "Effects on relative efficiency in electric power generation due to environmental controls," Resources and Energy, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 167-184, June.
  12. Fare, Rolf, et al, 1989. "Multilateral Productivity Comparisons When Some Outputs Are Undesirable: A Nonparametric Approach," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(1), pages 90-98, February.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Kumar, Surender & Gupta, Sreekant, 2004. "Resource use efficiency of US electricity generating plants during the SO2 trading regime: A distance function approach," Working Papers 04/17, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.
  2. Plesha, Nataliya & Ray, Subhash C. & Nehring, Richard F. & Ball, V. Eldon, 2012. "Incorporating "Bads" and "Goods" in the Measurement of Agricultural Productivity Growth in the U.S," 2012 Annual Meeting, August 12-14, 2012, Seattle, Washington 124585, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  3. Simar, Léopold & Vanhems, Anne, 2012. "Probabilistic characterization of directional distances and their robust versions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 166(2), pages 342-354.
  4. Forsund, Finn R., 2009. "Good Modelling of Bad Outputs: Pollution and Multiple-Output Production," International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, now publishers, vol. 3(1), pages 1-38, August.
  5. Sushama Murty, 2012. "Microfoundations for the Environmental Kuznets Curve: Invoking By-Production, Normality and Inferiority of Emissions," Discussion Papers 1203, Exeter University, Department of Economics.
  6. Kumar, Surender & Khanna, Madhu, 2005. "Measurement of environmental efficiency and productivity: A cross country analysis," Working Papers 05/29, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.
  7. Sushama Murty, 2014. "On the environmental Kuznets curve with fossil-fuel induced emission: Theory and some illustrative examples," Discussion Papers 1406, Exeter University, Department of Economics.
  8. Murty, Sushama, 2010. "Externalities and fundamental nonconvexities: A reconciliation of approaches to general equilibrium externality modeling and implications for decentralization," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 145(1), pages 331-353, January.
  9. Neophyta Empora & Theofanis Mamuneas, 2011. "The Effect of Emissions on U.S. State Total Factor Productivity Growth," Review of Economic Analysis, Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis, vol. 3(2), pages 149-172, October.
  10. Juana AZNAR-MARQUEZ & Jose-Ramon RUIZ-TAMARIT, 2012. "Sufficient and Necessary Conditions for Non-Catastrophic Growth," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2012027, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  11. Tim Coelli & Ludwig Lauwers & Guido Huylenbroeck, 2007. "Environmental efficiency measurement and the materials balance condition," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 3-12, October.
  12. Hampf, Benjamin, 2011. "Separating Environmental Efficiency into Production and Abatement Efficiency – A Nonparametric Model with Application to U.S. Power Plants," Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics 53901, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute of Economics (VWL).
  13. Murty, Sushama, 2010. "On the theory of a firm : The case of by-production of emissions," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 934, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  14. Davutyan, Nurhan & Bilsel, Murat & Tarcan, Menderes, 2012. "Risk-Adjusted Mortality, varieties of congestion and patient satisfaction in Turkish provincial general hospitals," MPRA Paper 37437, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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