Economic Valuation Models for Insurers
AbstractRecently much attention has been given to the approaches insurers undertake in valuing their liabilities and assets. For example, in 1994 the American Academy of Actuaries created a Fair Valuation of Liabilities Task Force to address the issue. In 1997, the Academy established a Valuation Law Task Force and a Valuation Tools Working Group to investigate the various valuation approaches extant and to make recommendations on which models are best suited to the task. Much of the published work has focused on attributes of the various models, their strengths and shortcomings. Some of the work has addressed the larger questions, but in our view, it is useful and necessary to provide a taxonomy of approaches and evaluate them in a systematic way in accordance with how well they achieve their aims. In this paper we focus primarily on the economic valuation of insurance liabilities, although we do address some valuation issues for assets. We begin in Section I by defining insurance liabilities. Next, in Section II, we discuss the criteria for a good economic valuation model. This is followed by a taxonomy of valuation models in Section III. In Section IV, we examine insurance liabilities in the context of this taxonomy and identify the minimum requirements of an economic valuation approach that purports to value them adequately. An illustration of the application of a modern valuation model is given in Section V. We conclude in Section VI by discussing some limitations of our analysis, and offer some recommendations for implementation.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania in its series Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers with number 97-44.
Date of creation: Oct 1997
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: 3301 Steinberg Hall-Dietrich Hall, 3620 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104.6367
Web page: http://fic.wharton.upenn.edu/fic/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Babbel, D.F. & Eisenberg, L.K., 1991.
"Quantity-Adjusting Options and Forward Contracts,"
Weiss Center Working Papers
29-91, Wharton School - Weiss Center for International Financial Research.
- David F. Babbel & Laurence K. Eisenberg, 1991. "Quantity-adjusting options and forward contracts," Working Paper 91-15, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
- Babbel, D.F. & Eisenberg, L.K., 1991. "Quantity-adjusting Options and Forward Contracts," Weiss Center Working Papers 24-91, Wharton School - Weiss Center for International Financial Research.
- William F. Sharpe, 1964. "Capital Asset Prices: A Theory Of Market Equilibrium Under Conditions Of Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 19(3), pages 425-442, 09.
- Cox, John C & Ingersoll, Jonathan E, Jr & Ross, Stephen A, 1985. "A Theory of the Term Structure of Interest Rates," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(2), pages 385-407, March.
- Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-54, May-June.
- Miles, James A. & Ezzell, John R., 1980. "The Weighted Average Cost of Capital, Perfect Capital Markets, and Project Life: A Clarification," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(03), pages 719-730, September.
- Myers, Stewart C, 1974. "Interactions of Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions-Implications for Capital Budgeting," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 29(1), pages 1-25, March.
- Stulz, ReneM., 1982. "Options on the minimum or the maximum of two risky assets : Analysis and applications," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 161-185, July.
- Myron J. Gordon & Eli Shapiro, 1956. "Capital Equipment Analysis: The Required Rate of Profit," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 3(1), pages 102-110, October.
- Mark Rubinstein, 1976. "The Valuation of Uncertain Income Streams and the Pricing of Options," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 7(2), pages 407-425, Autumn.
- Hull, John & White, Alan, 1990. "Pricing Interest-Rate-Derivative Securities," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 3(4), pages 573-92.
- Ross, Stephen A., 1976. "The arbitrage theory of capital asset pricing," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 341-360, December.
- Black, Fischer, 1976. "The pricing of commodity contracts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1-2), pages 167-179.
- Vasicek, Oldrich, 1977. "An equilibrium characterization of the term structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 177-188, November.
- Cox, John C & Ingersoll, Jonathan E, Jr & Ross, Stephen A, 1985. "An Intertemporal General Equilibrium Model of Asset Prices," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(2), pages 363-84, March.
- Michael J. Brennan and Eduardo S. Schwartz., 1979. "A Continuous-Time Approach to the Pricing of Bonds," Research Program in Finance Working Papers 85, University of California at Berkeley.
- Robert C. Merton, 1973. "Theory of Rational Option Pricing," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 4(1), pages 141-183, Spring.
- Cox, John C. & Ross, Stephen A. & Rubinstein, Mark, 1979. "Option pricing: A simplified approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 229-263, September.
- Boyle, Phelim P., 1977. "Options: A Monte Carlo approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 323-338, May.
- Brennan, Michael J. & Schwartz, Eduardo S., 1979. "A continuous time approach to the pricing of bonds," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 133-155, July.
- Ho, Thomas S Y & Lee, Sang-bin, 1986. " Term Structure Movements and Pricing Interest Rate Contingent Claims," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(5), pages 1011-29, December.
- Andrea Consiglio & Flavio Cocco & Stavros A. Zenios, 2001. "The Value of Integrative Risk Management for Insurance Products with Guarantees," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 01-06, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- Cocozza, Rosa & Di Lorenzo, Emilia, 2007. "A Dynamic Solvency Approach for Life Insurance," MPRA Paper 28015, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Consiglio, Andrea & Cocco, Flavio & Zenios, Stavros A., 2008.
"Asset and liability modelling for participating policies with guarantees,"
European Journal of Operational Research,
Elsevier, vol. 186(1), pages 380-404, April.
- Andrea Consiglio & Flavio Cocco & Stavros A. Zenios, 2001. "Asset and Liability Modeling for Participating Policies with Guarantees," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 00-41, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- Shen, Weixi & Xu, Huiping, 2005. "The valuation of unit-linked policies with or without surrender options," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 79-92, February.
- Giandomenico, Rossano, 2006. "Pricing of the Policy Life in Absence of Default Risk and Asset Liability Management," MPRA Paper 18844, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Grosen, Anders & Lochte Jorgensen, Peter, 2000. "Fair valuation of life insurance liabilities: The impact of interest rate guarantees, surrender options, and bonus policies," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 37-57, February.
- Consiglio, Andrea & De Giovanni, Domenico, 2008. "Evaluation of insurance products with guarantee in incomplete markets," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 332-342, February.
- Patrick McAllister & Pavlos Loizou, 2007. "The Appraisal of Data Centres: Deconstructing the Cash Flow," Real Estate & Planning Working Papers rep-wp2007-04, Henley Business School, Reading University.
- Eckhard Platen, 2009. "Real World Pricing of Long Term Contracts," Research Paper Series 262, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
- Kevin Fergusson & Eckhard Platen, 2013. "Real World Pricing of Long Term Cash-Linked Annuities and Equity-Linked Annuities with Cash-Linked Guarantees," Research Paper Series 338, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
- Giandomenico, Rossano, 2006. "Asset Liability Management in Insurance Company," MPRA Paper 16333, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Jan 2009.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Thomas Krichel).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.