Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login

Universities, Entry and Growth

Contents:

Author Info

  • Antonio Della Malva

    ()

  • Martin Carree
  • Enrico Santarelli

Abstract

The anecdotal evidence provided by the literature on high tech clusters has paved the way to systematic explorations of the localized effects of academic research on technological success and economic development. Prime drivers of such development are new entrants. New entrants are more likely to embark in the risky activity of developing new products and/or new processes, they often open up new markets, restructure existing ones, replace declining industries and reshape local markets. Studies on the relation between academic R&D and business entry have found modest effects of the former on the latter. Recent empirical findings in the field of technology transfer, however, suggest that quality of academic research and the entrepreneurial attitude by faculty be the main factors explaining economic relevance of academic R&D. In this study we test the hypothesis that knowledge spilling over departments conducting cutting-edge research generates higher entry in related technology-intensive sectors than lower standing departments. We thus explore the extent to which the quantity, quality and orientation of research carried on at universities stimulates differently market entry in high-tech and low-tech sectors and the consequences of entry (high and low tech) on economic growth. We use data on business entry in 103 Italian provinces (NUTS3) between 2001 and 2006; we relate entry to a battery of measures of university presence in the province: the number of students graduated in scientific disciplines in 2001, the scientific productivity of academics between 1985 and 1999 and the number of patents invented by academics between 1978 and 2000. We apply a three-equation recursive model where in the first place we estimate the contribution of universities to entry, both in high-tech and low tech sectors and secondly the effects of entry and universities on economic growth. Additionally, we include patents and trademarks to control for the existence of innovative activities from the private sector, the presence and relevance of industrial districts to account for industrial specialization, the quality of road infrastructures and the existence of business service providers to support the creation of new ventures.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www-sre.wu.ac.at/ersa/ersaconfs/ersa10/ERSA2010finalpaper554.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by European Regional Science Association in its series ERSA conference papers with number ersa10p554.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: Sep 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa10p554

Contact details of provider:
Postal: Welthandelsplatz 1, 1020 Vienna, Austria
Web page: http://www.ersa.org

Related research

Keywords:

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Harhoff, Dietmar, 1995. "Firm formation and regional spillovers: evidence from Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 95-11, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  2. Mian, Sarfraz A., 1996. "Assessing value-added contributions of university technology business incubators to tenant firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 325-335, May.
  3. David B. Audretsch, 1995. "Innovation and Industry Evolution," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262011468, December.
  4. Acs, Zoltán J & Audretsch, David B & Braunerhjelm, Pontus & Carlsson, Bo, 2004. "The Missing Link: The Knowledge Filter and Entrepreneurship in Endogenous Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 4783, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. Audretsch, David B. & Keilbach, Max, 2008. "Resolving the knowledge paradox: Knowledge-spillover entrepreneurship and economic growth," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(10), pages 1697-1705, December.
  6. Dirk Krueger & Krishna B. Kumar, 2003. "Skill-specific rather then General Education: A Reason for US-Europe Growth Differences?," NBER Working Papers 9408, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-37, October.
  8. Mark Sanders, 2007. "Scientific Paradigms, Entrepreneurial Opportunities and Cycles in Economic Growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(4), pages 339-354, April.
  9. M. Piva & E. Santarelli & M. Vivarelli, 2003. "The Skill Bias Effect of Technological and Organisational Change: Evidenceand Policy Implications," Working Papers 486, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  10. Chiara Franzoni, 2009. "Do scientists get fundamental research ideas by solving practical problems?," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 18(4), pages 671-699, August.
  11. Maryann Feldman & Pierre Desrochers, 2003. "Research Universities and Local Economic Development: Lessons from the History of the Johns Hopkins University," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(1), pages 5-24.
  12. Laura Abramovsky & Rupert Harrison & Helen Simpson, 2007. "University research and the location of business R&D," IFS Working Papers W07/02, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  13. Barro, R.J., 1989. "Economic Growth In A Cross Section Of Countries," RCER Working Papers 201, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  14. Ajay Agrawal & Rebecca Henderson, 2002. "Putting Patents in Context: Exploring Knowledge Transfer from MIT," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 48(1), pages 44-60, January.
  15. Woodward, Douglas & Figueiredo, Octavio & Guimaraes, Paulo, 2006. "Beyond the Silicon Valley: University R&D and high-technology location," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 15-32, July.
  16. Steven Klepper & Sally Sleeper, 2005. "Entry by Spinoffs," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 51(8), pages 1291-1306, August.
  17. Bania, Neil & Eberts, Randall W & Fogarty, Michael S, 1993. "Universities and the Startup of New Companies: Can We Generalize from Route 128 and Silicon Valley?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(4), pages 761-66, November.
  18. Owen-Smith, Jason & Powell, Walter W, 2001. " To Patent or Not: Faculty Decisions and Institutional Success at Technology Transfer," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 26(1-2), pages 99-114, January.
  19. Di Gregorio, Dante & Shane, Scott, 2003. "Why do some universities generate more start-ups than others?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 209-227, February.
  20. Jaffe, Adam B, 1989. "Real Effects of Academic Research," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(5), pages 957-70, December.
  21. Nelson, Richard R & Wright, Gavin, 1992. "The Rise and Fall of American Technological Leadership: The Postwar Era in Historical Perspective," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(4), pages 1931-64, December.
  22. Marie Thursby & Richard Jensen, 2001. "Proofs and Prototypes for Sale: The Licensing of University Inventions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(1), pages 240-259, March.
  23. Zucker, Lynne G & Darby, Michael R & Brewer, Marilynn B, 1998. "Intellectual Human Capital and the Birth of U.S. Biotechnology Enterprises," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(1), pages 290-306, March.
  24. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
  25. Adams, James D, 1990. "Fundamental Stocks of Knowledge and Productivity Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(4), pages 673-702, August.
  26. Bruno Cassiman & Reinhilde Veugelers, 2002. "R&D Cooperation and Spillovers: Some Empirical Evidence from Belgium," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(4), pages 1169-1184, September.
  27. Arora, Ashish & Gambardella, Alfonso, 1994. "The changing technology of technological change: general and abstract knowledge and the division of innovative labour," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 523-532, September.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa10p554. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gunther Maier).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.