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Job Growth in Early Transition: Comparing Two Paths

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  • Stepan Jurajda

    ()

  • Katherine Terrell

    ()

Abstract

Small start-up firms are the engine of job creation in early transition and yet little is known about the characteristics of this new sector. We seek to identify patterns of job growth in this sector in terms of niches left from central planning and ask about differences in job creation across two different transition economies: Estonia, which experienced rapid destruction of the pre-existing firms, and the Czech Republic, which reduced the old sector gradually. We find job growth within industries to be quantitatively more important than job growth due to across-industry reallocation. Furthermore, the industrial composition of startups is strikingly similar in the two countries. We offer convergence to "western" industry firm-size distributions as an explanation. We also find regularities in wage evolution across new and old firms, including small differences in job quality across the two transition paths.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan in its series William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series with number 503.

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Length: 37 pages
Date of creation: 01 Aug 2002
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wdi:papers:2002-503

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Keywords: Job growth; job creation; job destruction; new sector; transition economies; Czech Republic; Estonia;

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References

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  1. Jurajda, Stepan & Terrell, Katherine, 2002. "What Drives the Speed of Job Reallocation During Episodes of Massive Adjustment?," CEPR Discussion Papers 3218, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Earle, John S. & Sakova, Zuzana, 2000. "Business start-ups or disguised unemployment? Evidence on the character of self-employment from transition economies," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 575-601, September.
  3. Roland, Gerard & Sekkat, Khalid, 2000. "Managerial career concerns, privatization and restructuring in transition economies," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(10), pages 1857-1872, December.
  4. Castanheira, Micael & Roland, Gérard, 1996. "The Optimal Speed of Transition: A General Equilibrium Analysis," CEPR Discussion Papers 1442, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. Faggio, Giulia & Konings, Jozef, 2003. "Job creation, job destruction and employment growth in transition countries in the 90s," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 129-154, June.
  6. Svejnar, Jan, 1999. "Labor markets in the transitional Central and East European economies," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 42, pages 2809-2857 Elsevier.
  7. Krishna B. Kumar & Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, 1999. "What Determines Firm Size?," NBER Working Papers 7208, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Vit Sorm & Katherine Terrell, 1999. "Sectoral Restructuring and Labor Mobility: A Comparative Look at the Czech Republic," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 273, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  9. Stiglbauer, Alfred M. & Stahl, Florian & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf & Zweimüller, Josef, 2002. "Job Creation and Job Destruction in a Regulated Labor Market: The Case of Austria," IZA Discussion Papers 546, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Berkowitz, Daniel & DeJong, David N., 2003. "Policy reform and growth in post-Soviet Russia," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 337-352, April.
  11. Tito Boeri & Katherine Terrell, 2002. "Institutional Determinants of Labor Reallocation in Transition," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 16(1), pages 51-76, Winter.
  12. Blanchard, Olivier Jean & Aghion, Philippe, 1994. "On the Speed of Transition in Central Europe," Scholarly Articles 4481322, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  13. Steve J. Davis & John Haltiwanger, 1991. "Gross job creation, gross job destruction and employment reallocation," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues 91-5, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  14. Andrzej Bratkowski & Irena Grosfeld & Jacek Rostowski, 2000. "Investment and Finance in "de novo" private firms: Empirical Results from the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 8(1), pages 101-116, March.
  15. Simon Johnson & John McMillan & Christopher Woodruff, 2000. "Entrepreneurs and the Ordering of Institutional Reform: Poland, Slovakia, Romania, Russia and Ukraine Compared," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 8(1), pages 1-36, March.
  16. Lubomir Lizal & Jan Svejnar, 2001. "Financial Conditions and Investment during the Transition: Evidence from Czech Firms," Development and Comp Systems 0012008, EconWPA.
  17. David J. Cooper & Daniel M. Berkowitz, 1997. "Start-ups and Transition," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 84, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  18. Ricardo J. Caballero & Mohamad L. Hammour, 2001. "Creative Destruction and Development : Institutions, Crises and Restructuring," DELTA Working Papers 2001-04, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Stepan Jurajda, 2003. "Does the Short Supply of College Education Bite?," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp213, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economic Institute, Prague.
  2. J. David Brown & John Earle, 2004. "Economic Reforms and Productivity-Enhancing Reallocation in the Post-Soviet Transition," CERT Discussion Papers 0404, Centre for Economic Reform and Transformation, Heriot Watt University.
  3. Rumen Dobrinsky, 2004. "Small Private Sector in Bulgaria: Labour Market Impact and “Grey Zone” Activity," wiiw Balkan Observatory Working Papers 037, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
  4. Maxim Bouev, 2004. "Diverging Paths: Transition in the Presence of the Informal Sector," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2004-689, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  5. Ickes, Barry W. & Ofer, Gur, 2006. "The political economy of structural change in Russia," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 409-434, June.
  6. Richard Disney & Jelena Laušev, . "Monopsony With Heterogeneous Labour: Evidence From Economic Transition," Discussion Papers 11/11, University of Nottingham, School of Economics.
  7. Jurajda, Stepán & Terrell, Katherine, 2008. "Job Reallocation in Two Cases of Massive Adjustment in Eastern Europe," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 2144-2169, November.
  8. Kosovka Ognjenovic & Aleksandra Brankovic, 2012. "Job Creation and Emplozment in a Time of Crisis," Book Chapters, Institute of Economic Sciences.
  9. Michael Wyrwich, 2013. "Ready, set, go! Why are some regions entrepreneurial jump-starters?," Jena Economic Research Papers 2013-037, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  10. Münich, Daniel & Svejnar, Jan, 2007. "Unemployment in East and West Europe," IZA Discussion Papers 2798, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Pradeep Mitra & Alexander Muravyev & Mark E. Schaffer, 2008. "Convergence in institutions and market outcomes: Cross-country and time-series evidence from the BEEPS surveys in transition economies," CERT Discussion Papers 0809, Centre for Economic Reform and Transformation, Heriot Watt University.
  12. Giulia Faggio, 2007. "Job Destruction, Job Creation and Unemployment in Transition Countries: What Can We Learn?," CEP Discussion Papers dp0798, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  13. Brixiova, Zuzana & Li, Wenli & Yousef, Tarik, 2009. "Skill shortages and labor market outcomes in Central Europe," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 45-59, March.
  14. Lehmann, Hartmut & Philips, Kaia & Wadsworth, Jonathan, 2005. "The incidence and cost of job loss in a transition economy: displaced workers in Estonia, 1989 to 1999," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 59-87, March.
  15. Štìpán Jurajda, 2005. "Czech Relative Wages and Returns to Schooling: Does the Short Supply of College Education Bite? (in English)," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 55(1-2), pages 83-95, January.
  16. Jaan Masso & Raul Eamets & Kaia Philips, 2004. "Where Have All The Jobs Gone? Gross Job Flows In Estonia," University of Tartu - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series 28, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu (Estonia).
  17. Vladislav Flek & Kamil Galuscak & Jaromir Gottvald & Jaromir Hurnik & Stepan Jurajda & David Navratil & Petr Mares & Daniel Munich & Tomas Sirovatka & Jiri Vecernik, 2004. "Anatomy of the Czech Labour Market:From Over-Employment to Under-Employment in Ten Years?," Working Papers 2004/07, Czech National Bank, Research Department.

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