An analysis of physical and monetary losses of environmental health and natural resources in India
AbstractThis study provides estimates of social and financial costs of environmental damage in India from three pollution damage categories: (i) urban air pollution; (ii) inadequate water supply, poor sanitation, and hygiene; and (iii) indoor air pollution. It also provides estimates based on three natural resource damage categories: (i) agricultural damage from soil salinity, water logging, and soil erosion; (ii) rangeland degradation; and (iii) deforestation. The estimates are based on a combination of Indian data from secondary sources and on the transfer of unit costs of pollution from a range of national and international studies. The study estimates the total cost of environmental degradation in India at about 3.75 trillion rupees (US$80 billion) annually, equivalent to 5.7 percent of gross domestic product in 2009, which is the reference year for most of the damage estimates. Of this total, outdoor air pollution accounts for 1.1 trillion rupees, followed by the cost of indoor air pollution at 0.9 trillion rupees, croplands degradation cost at 0.7 trillion rupees, inadequate water supply and sanitation cost at around at 0.5 trillion rupees, pasture degradation cost at 0.4 trillion rupees, and forest degradation cost at 0.1 trillion rupees.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 6219.
Date of creation: 01 Oct 2012
Date of revision:
Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Environmental Economics&Policies; Population Policies; Brown Issues and Health; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-AGR-2012-10-20 (Agricultural Economics)
- NEP-ALL-2012-10-20 (All new papers)
- NEP-ENE-2012-10-20 (Energy Economics)
- NEP-ENV-2012-10-20 (Environmental Economics)
- NEP-HEA-2012-10-20 (Health Economics)
- NEP-RES-2012-10-20 (Resource Economics)
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