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The economic impact of banking the unbanked : evidence from Mexico

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  • Bruhn, Miriam
  • Love, Inessa

Abstract

This paper examines the effects of providing financial services to low-income individuals on entrepreneurial activity, employment, and income. The analysis exploits cross-time and cross-municipality variation in the opening of Banco Azteca in Mexico to measure these effects with a difference-in-difference strategy. Banco Azteca opened more than 800 branches simultaneously in 2002, focusing on low-income clients. The results show that the opening of Banco Azteca led to an increase in the number of informal business owners by 7.6 percent. Total employment also increased, by 1.4 percent, and average income went up by about 7 percent.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 4981.

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Date of creation: 01 Jun 2009
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4981

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Related research

Keywords: ; Access to Finance; Banks&Banking Reform; Labor Policies; Corporate Law;

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References

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  1. David McKenzie & Christopher Woodruff, 2008. "Experimental Evidence on Returns to Capital and Access to Finance in Mexico," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 22(3), pages 457-482, November.
  2. Sandra E. Black & Philip E. Strahan, 2002. "Entrepreneurship and Bank Credit Availability," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2807-2833, December.
  3. Thorsten Beck & Ross Levine & Alexey Levkov, 2007. "Big Bad Banks? The Impact of U.S. Branch Deregulation on Income Distribution," NBER Working Papers 13299, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Robin Burgess & Rohini Pande & Grace Wong, 2005. "Banking for the Poor: Evidence From India," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(2-3), pages 268-278, 04/05.
  5. Nicola Cetorelli & Philip E. Strahan, 2006. "Finance as a Barrier to Entry: Bank Competition and Industry Structure in Local U.S. Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(1), pages 437-461, 02.
  6. Dean Karlan & Jonathan Zinman, 2007. "Expanding Credit Access: Using Randomized Supply Decisions to Estimate the Impacts," Working Papers 108, Center for Global Development.
  7. Miriam Bruhn, 2011. "License to Sell: The Effect of Business Registration Reform on Entrepreneurial Activity in Mexico," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(1), pages 382-386, February.
  8. Coleman, Brett E., 1999. "The impact of group lending in Northeast Thailand," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 105-141, October.
  9. Mark M. Pitt & Shahidur R. Khandker, 1998. "The Impact of Group-Based Credit Programs on Poor Households in Bangladesh: Does the Gender of Participants Matter?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(5), pages 958-996, October.
  10. Mark M. Pitt & Shahidur R. Khandker & Omar Haider Chowdhury & Daniel L. Millimet, 1998. "Credit Programs for the Poor and the Nutritional Status of Children in Rural Bangladesh," Working Papers 98-4, Brown University, Department of Economics, revised 16 Jan 1998.
  11. Joseph P. Kaboski & Robert M. Townsend, 2005. "Policies and Impact: An Analysis of Village-Level Microfinance Institutions," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(1), pages 1-50, 03.
  12. Mark M. Pitt & Shahidur R. Khandker & Omar Haider Chowdhury & Daniel L. Millimet, 2003. "Credit Programs for the Poor And the Health Status of Children in Rural Bangladesh," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 44(1), pages 87-118, February.
  13. Demirgüç-Kunt, A. & Beck, T.H.L. & Honohan, P., 2008. "Finance for all?: Policies and pitfalls in expanding access," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3508393, Tilburg University.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Swamy, Vighneswara, 2014. "Financial Inclusion, Gender Dimension, and Economic Impact on Poor Households," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 1-15.
  2. Robert Cull & Asl? Demirgüç-Kunt & Timothy Lyman, 2012. "Financial Inclusion and Stability : What Does Research Show?," World Bank Other Operational Studies 9443, The World Bank.
  3. World Bank, 2011. "Measuring Changes in Client Lives through Microfinance : Contributions of Different Approaches," World Bank Other Operational Studies 9452, The World Bank.
  4. Miriam Bruhn & Inessa Love, 2011. "Gender differences in the impact of banking services: evidence from Mexico," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 493-512, November.
  5. Claudia Ruiz, 2010. "From Pawn Shops to Banks: The Impact of Banco Azteca on Households' Credit and Saving Decisions," 2010 Meeting Papers 969, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  6. Assunção, Juliano, 2013. "Eliminating entry barriers for the provision of banking services: Evidence from ‘banking correspondents’ in Brazil," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 2806-2811.
  7. Bruhn, Miriam & Zia, Bilal, 2011. "Stimulating managerial capital in emerging markets : the impact of business and financial literacy for young entrepreneurs," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5642, The World Bank.

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