A firm-level analysis of small and medium size enterprise financing in Poland
AbstractThe authors test competing theories of capital structure choices using firm-level data on firm borrowings. The majority of firms in the dataset are privately owned, young, micro or small and medium enterprise (SME) firms concentrated in the service sector. In general, the financing pattern of firms is low leverage ratios and, in particular, low levels of intermediated financing and long-term financing. Average firm growth rates decreased during the five years of the sample period. Average profitability growth ratios are also negative across age and sectors and large firms have the highest negative profit growth rates. Statistical tests find a positive firm size effect on financial intermediation. Larger firms have higher leverage ratios (both short term and long term), including higher use of trade credit. There is also a negative influence of profitability on leverage ratios (more profitable firms use less external financing), which supports the"pecking order"theory that in environments with greater asymmetric information (such as weaker credit information) firms prefer to use internal or inter-firm financing. Finally, firms operating in a competitive environment have higher leverage ratios. For instance, young, small firms are the most active employment generators in the Polish economy. In particular, the authors find that although SMEs seem to be very active in creating jobs in recent years. This suggests that a new type of firm is emerging that is more market and profit-oriented. But at the same time, these firms appear to have financial constraints that impede their growth. Improvements in the business environment, such as better credit and registry information, could help promote growth in this sector.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 3984.
Date of creation: 01 Aug 2006
Date of revision:
Small Scale Enterprise; Microfinance; Economic Theory&Research; Investment and Investment Climate; Financial Intermediation;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2006-08-19 (All new papers)
- NEP-CFN-2006-08-19 (Corporate Finance)
- NEP-ENT-2006-08-19 (Entrepreneurship)
- NEP-FMK-2006-08-19 (Financial Markets)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, .
"Law and Finance,"
19451, Harvard University OpenScholar.
- La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1998. "Law and Finance," Scholarly Articles 3451310, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1996. "Law and Finance," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1768, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silane & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1996. "Law and Finance," NBER Working Papers 5661, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Timothy Frye & Andrei Shleifer, 1996.
"The Invisible Hand and the Grabbing Hand,"
NBER Working Papers
5856, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Emilio Colombo, 2001. "Determinants of corporate capital structure: evidence from Hungarian firms," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(13), pages 1689-1701.
- Daniel Gros & Marc Suhrcke, 2000.
"Ten Years After: What is Special about Transition Countries?,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
327, CESifo Group Munich.
- Daniel Gros & Marc Suhrcke, 2000. "Ten years after: what is special about transition countries?," Working Papers 56, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Office of the Chief Economist.
- Gros, Daniel & Suhrcke, Marc, 2000. "Ten years after : what is special about transition countries?," HWWA Discussion Papers 86, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
- Cornelli, F. & Portes, R. & Schaffer, M., 1996.
"The Capital Structure of Firms in Central and Eastern Europe,"
DELTA Working Papers
96-05, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
- Cornelli, Francesca & Portes, Richard & Schaffer, Mark E, 1996. "The Capital Structure of Firms in Central and Eastern Europe," CEPR Discussion Papers 1392, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Booth, L. & Asli Demirgu-Kunt, V.A. & Maksimovic, V., 1999.
"Capital Structure in Developing Countries,"
Rotman School of Management - Finance
00-001, Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto.
- Bilsen, Valentijn & Konings, Jozef, 1998.
"Job Creation, Job Destruction, and Growth of Newly Established, Privatized, and State-Owned Enterprises in Transition Economies: Survey Evidence from Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania,"
Journal of Comparative Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 429-445, September.
- Valentijn Bilsen & Jozef Konings, 1997. "Job Creation, Job Destruction and Growth of Newly Established, Privatized and State-Owned Enterprises in Transition Economies: Survey Evidence from Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 106, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Attila Havas, 2002. "Does Innovation Policy Matter in a Transition Country? – The case of Hungary," IEHAS Discussion Papers 0205, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
- Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2002.
"Funding growth in bank-based and market-based financial systems: evidence from firm-level data,"
Journal of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 337-363, September.
- Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2000. "Funding growth in bank-based and market-based financial systems : evidence from firm level data," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2432, The World Bank.
- Konings, Jozef & Rizov, Marian & Vandenbussche, Hylke, 2003. "Investment and financial constraints in transition economies: micro evidence from Poland, the Czech Republic, Bulgaria and Romania," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 253-258, February.
- Budina, Nina & Garretsen, Harry & de Jong, Elke, 2000. "Liquidity constraints and investment in transition economies - the case of Bulgaria," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2278, The World Bank.
- E.C. Perotti & O. Carare, 1997.
"The Evolution of Bank Credit Quality in Transition: Theory and Evidence from Romania,"
CERT Discussion Papers
9702, Centre for Economic Reform and Transformation, Heriot Watt University.
- Enrico C. Perotti & Octavian Carare, 1996. "The Evolution of Bank Credit Qulity in Transition: Theory and Evidence from Romania," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 49, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Chaves, R.A. & Sanchez, S. & Schor, S. & Tesliuc, E., 2001. "Financial Markets, Credit Constraints, and Investment in Rural Romania," Papers 499, World Bank - Technical Papers.
- Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1995. "Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 351-81, July.
- Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-29, May.
- Simon Johnson & John McMillan & Christopher Woodruff, 2002.
"Property Rights and Finance,"
NBER Working Papers
8852, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Vladimirov, Zhelyu & Simeonova-Ganeva, Ralitsa & Ganev, Kaloyan, 2012. "Interaction of leading and supporting factors for the SME competitiveness," MPRA Paper 37251, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Mateev, Miroslav & Poutziouris, Panikkos & Ivanov, Konstantin, 2013. "On the determinants of SME capital structure in Central and Eastern Europe: A dynamic panel analysis," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 28-51.
- Julia Hirsch & Uwe Walz, 2009. "Financing Decisions Along a Firm’s Life Cycle: Debt as a Commitment Device," Working Papers 0409, Universidad Iberoamericana, Department of Economics.
- Fidrmuc, Jarko & Hainz, Christa, 2010.
"Default rates in the loan market for SMEs: Evidence from Slovakia,"
Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 133-147, June.
- Jarko Fidrmuc & Christa Hainz, 2009. "Default Rates in the Loan Market for SMEs:Evidence from Slovakia," Ifo Working Paper Series Ifo Working Paper No. 72, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
- Jarko Fidrmuc & Christa Hainz & Anton Malesich, 2006. "Default Rates in the Loan Market for SMEs: Evidence from Slovakia," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp854, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Claude Berthomieu & Anastasia Ri, 2009. "Process and Effects of Financial Liberalization in Transition Countries: A Selective Literature Survey," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 56(4), pages 453-473, December.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.